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The head or leader of a group.
On 23 May 1941 Chief (AMC-67) was renamed Bold
(AM-315: dp. 890; 1. 221'2"; b. 32'2"; d. 10'9i'; s. 18 k.;
cpl. 105; a. 1 3"; cl. Auk)
Originally intended for Grent Britain, HMS Alice (BAM-2) was launched 5 January 1943 by General Engineering and Dry Dock Co., Alameda, Calif., renamed and reclassified Chief (AM-315), 23 January 1943; and commissioned 9 October 1943, Lieutenant Commander J. M. Wyckoff, USHR, in command Departing San Diego 7 December 1943, Chief joined in exercises in Hawaiian waters until 22 January 1944 when she sailed for Kwajalein. She swept the harbor and joined the antisubmarine patrol until 14 February when she returned to Pearl Harbor for repairs. Except for a convoy escort voyage to Eniwetok (21 March-15 April), she remained at Pearl Harbor until 29 May.
Joining TF 52 at EnIwetok, Chief sortied 12 June 1944 for the Marianas operation. Between 15 June and 7 August, she cleared mines for the invasions of Saipan and Tinian, and gave fire support to troops ashore, then had local duty at Saipan. Departing 9 September she escorted DeGrasse (AP-164) to Pearl Harbor, then continued to San Francisco for overhaul.
Returning to Pearl Harbor 2 January 1945, Chief voyaged to Eniwetok on convoy escort duty then condueted exercises in Hawaiian waters until clearing for Ulithi, where she arrived 4 March. After receiving new equipment she sailed for Okinawa on 15 May. From 26 May to 2; August she acted as flagship for,the group conducting hydrographic survey of Unten Ko, and developing it as minecraft typhoon anchorage. On 8 September Chief put out for Wakayama, Japan, where until 6 October she swept minefields in preparation for the arrival of occupation forces. She also assisted in the salvage of YMS-6,18 on 28 September. Chief remained on occupation duty at Nagoya and Sasebo until 10 March 1946 when she steamed for San Francisco, arriving 19 April. She was placed out of commission in reserve 17 March 1947, berthed at San Pedro, Calif.
Recommissioned 28 February 1952 at Long Beach Chief conducted training exercises off San Diego, untli 7 July when she sailed for Sasebo, Japan, arriving 3 August. She operated with TF 95 around mine-infested Wonsan Harbor and was twice fired on by enemy shore batteries. She returned to Long Beach 5 February 1953 for local operations and training. Her second Korean tour from 5 October 1953 to 2 June 1954 found her patrolling with TF 95 off both coasts of Korea to preserve the truce. She returned to west coast operations and on 1 November 1954 was placed in commission in reserve. Reclassified MSP-316 on 7 February 1955, she was placed out of commission in reserve 15 March 1955.
Chief received five battle stars for World War II service and two for Korean war service.
The Kansas City Missouri Police Department began on April 15, 1874, when the Board of Police Commissioners, with George Caleb Bingham (famed Missouri artist) as its president, appointed Thomas M. Speers to fill the office of Chief from April 15, 1874, to May 4, 1895. No chief since that time has held the office as long as Chief Speers. Chief Clarence M. Kelley, who in 1973 resigned to become the second permanent Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, was head of the Kansas City Police Department almost 12 years and was second-longest serving chief. Both of these men were far advanced in their talents and actions in the field of law enforcement, capable of giving the most to the citizens of Kansas City for the dollars spent and the manpower available.
The City Council, heavily swayed by a corrupt Tom Pendergast, approved a home-rule ordinance in 1932 that brought KCPD under city governance for the first time since its 1874 inception. Previously, it was governed by a board of men appointed by the governor. Corruption of the police force ensued.
In 1939, Missouri Attorney General Roy McKeltside came down hard on the corruption generated by the Pendergast Political Machine. Missouri Governor Lloyd Stark had the police department returned to state control under commissioners that he appointed. Thus was reinstated the original form of KCPD governance – a governor-appointed Board of Police Commissioners, and it’s the system used today. (An historical note: this new Board in 1939 appointed a new police chief, Lear B. Reed, and charged him with rooting corruption out of the force. About 50 percent of KCPD employees were fired at that time.)
Many of the department’s historical artifact are on display on the main level of the Kansas City Regional Police Academy, 6885 N.E. Pleasant Valley Rd., Kansas City, Mo.
View the names of the fallen officers who died in the line of duty and the year they died on the Memorial Page.
Teach residential school history in classes, says newly elected Ontario regional chief
SUDBURY -- A familiar face within the Anisinabek Nation and on Manitoulin Island will soon be ascending to one of the highest offices in the province.
Former Anishinabek Nation Grand Chief Glen Hare was elected to the position of Ontario Regional Chief during the 47th Annual All Ontario Chiefs Conference on Thursday.
For Hare, who hails from M'Chigeeng First Nation, it's a big honour.
"I don't take it very lightly, lots of thought has been put into this, I didn't just jump in for the sake of looking for work," he said. "First and foremost any political leader needs his family's support, 100 per cent, and I still had that coming from the Grand Chief of the Anishinabek Nation."
In an interview with CTV News, Hare, who is no stranger to politics, said he's looking forward to the challenge of representing Ontario nationally.
It comes on the heels of the discovery of 215 children buried at the former Kamloops residential school in British Columbia.
Hare said it's time to switch focus to finding other victims
"It time for the truth," he said. "The government is the one that came and got our kids, our babies, at our homes. My God, they're responsible for bringing them back home. One hundred per cent."
"These are horror stories. They were murdered."
He's seen shocking news clips of children being taken away from families in cattle trucks to residential schools.
"You don't treat us like that," Hare said. "I was just appalled to see that."
Canadian students need to learn the full history of how First Nations people have been treated, he said. Many Canadians have been shocked to learn the ugly history of residential schools, and that has to change. Right now, too many people don't believe Indigenous people when they tell their stories.
"Put the truth in education," Hare said. "Put it in the classrooms . It has to be put into the history, because they need to know. Teach everybody what happened."
When it comes to truth and reconciliation, Hare said he's heard a lot of talk in the last five decades, but very little action. That has to change.
"No more talk, and no more bringing this up only when they have an election," he said.
In terms of his priorities, Hare said he will work with chiefs to set their agenda and find out what is most important to them.
"And I need government leadership at the table," he said. "Let's do this together. I want to work with everybody."
"I know the government leaders, provincial and federal. I want them to meet my leadership, too, and let's meet at the table and talk about these things. Be part of the solution."
There will be a familiar face ascending to the office of Ontario Regional Chief at a ceremony on Friday in Nipissing First Nation. Former Anisinabek Nation Grand Chief Glen Hare was elected to the position Thursday. (Photo from video)
Chief -AM-315 - History
The property on which the ranch sits was located in the western part of lands inhabited by the Salish tribe for hundreds of years .  When Lewis and Clark entered the upper Bitterroot Valley in September 1805, they followed a trail used by the native tribes. The Nez Perce also annually traveled the trail south to reach the bison hunting grounds in the Big Hole Valley, often banding together with the Salish to counter threats from other tribes, notably the Blackfoot . 
The native trail traversed the ranch just west of the Lodge and funneled down to where the barns now sit. Chief Joseph led his people across the ranch in his flight from the U.S. Army during the Nez Perce War in the summer of 1877.  The ranch property was homesteaded by settlers in 1880 and water rights were registered in 1884.  It was originally known as the Shelton ranch. 
In 1914, the 2,500-acre ranch was purchased by the glass tycoon William S. Ford  and Federal Judge Howard Clark Hollister  , both from Ohio. The ranch was, at the time of purchase, a thriving apple orchard. Using both log and stone native to the grounds, William Ford began a three-year endeavor to build one of the great log structures of the American West - the Ford-Hollister Lodge.
Designed by the architectural firm of Bates & Gamble  , the 6,000 square foot lodge has been featured in such publications as Architectural Digest and American Log Homes. The Lodge occupies a place alongside the Old Faithful Inn at Yellowstone and the Lodges at Glacier National Park. Along with the Lodge, Ford built three massive barns as the backdrop for his model dairy. He then replaced the apple trees with the largest herd of Holsteins west of the Mississippi. 
In the early 1920s the dairy operation would give way to a Hereford herd.  In 1935, after William Ford passed, Mrs. May Ford and her daughters Phyllis and Billie Ann, opened and operated one of the first guest ranches in the west, along with the help of their ranch manager, Ben Cook. 
In the early 1950&rsquos, the Ford and Hollister Ranch was sold and renamed the Chief Joseph Ranch, in honor of the great Nez Perce chief and his journey through the property.  Today, the ranch serves as the home of the fictional Dutton Ranch on Paramount Network&rsquos television sensation &ldquoYellowstone&rdquo. 
Watched by millions, the lodge has become a character in its own right, representing an iconic 104 year old western Montana home.  In between filming, this working Montana ranch doubles as a guest ranch and a family home. 
 Carling Malouf, &ldquoFlathead and Pend d&rsquoOreille,&rdquo Handbook of North American Indians Volume 12 Plateau, 1998. 297-298.
 The Salish and the Buffalo,&rdquo Historic Saint Mary&rsquos Mission and Museum Est. 1841, 2019. http://www.saintmarysmission.org/Salish-buffalo
 Jerome Greene, Nez Perce Summer 1877: The U.S. Army and the Nee-Me-Poo Crisis (Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press, 2000), 171-173.
 Water Rights Bureau, The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, 2019. dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/water-rights
 Christine Brown, Tom Ferris, and Chere Jiusto, Hand Raised : The Barns of Montana (Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press, 2011), 56.
 Brown, Ferris, and Jiusto, Barns of Montana, 56.
 Verlyn Klinkenburg, &ldquoChief Joseph Ranch: The paradoxical tale of an historic property near Darby, Montana,&rdquo Architectural Digest, June 1994. 120-126.
 Christine Brown, Tom Ferris, and Chere Jiusto, Hand Raised : The Barns of Montana (Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press, 2011), 56.
 Brown, Ferris, and Jiusto, Barns of Montana, 56.
 Barbara Lloyd, &ldquoLog Mansion That Recalls Indian History,&rdquo The New York Times, 8 April 1993. Section C, Page 1.
Old Chief Joseph Gravesite History
At the base of Lake Wallowa, in Joseph Oregon is the grave of Old Chief Joseph, the father of young Chief Joseph, one of the Nez Perce leaders in the events of 1877.
In 1926, 2,500 people lined up to see the remains of tıwi·teq̉ıs or Old Chief Joseph interred at a new gravesite at the base of Lake Wallowa, overlooking the lands he once called home. Located in northeastern Oregon in the nimí·pu· or Nez Perce homeland, tıwi·teq̉ıs is the father of Chief Joseph, a leader during the conflict of 1877.
Ttıwi·teq̉ıs was born between 1785 and 1790 and grew to be a leader of the groups of nimí·pu· living in the Wallowa's. He signed the Treaty of 1855 but refused to put his mark to the Treaty of 1863. He died in 1871 but not before compelling his son to hold fast and defend his home land and people, "My son, never forget my dying words, This country holds your father's body. Never sell the bones of your father and mother." Unfortunately, under the threat of being evicted by the U.S. Army, Young Joseph left the Wallowas in the spring of 1877 for the Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho. When tıwi·teq̉ıs died, he was buried further down the valley but his grave was desecrated.
After the nimí·pu· left the valley in 1877, the land was settled and several prominent community leaders lobbied for tıwi·teq̉ıs to be reburied. In 1926 that happened. While the Nez Perce have been gone for over a century, the grave is a tangible link to a place that is still special to the Nez Perce.
Learn more about what happened next by following the links below.
Dug Bar History
While on their way to the new reservation, Chief Joseph's band crossed the Snake River on May 31, 1877 and lost several heads of cattle.
The Nez Perce Flight of 1877
In 1877, the non-treaty Nez Perce were forced on a 126-day journey that spanned over 1,170 miles and through four different states.
Visit the Old Chief Joseph Gravesite
Plan your visit to the site where Tıwi·teqıs's remains are buried. Located near Joseph, OR.
c. 1300, "highest in rank or power most important or prominent supreme, best, placed above the rest," from Old French chief "chief, principal, first" (10c., Modern French chef ), from Vulgar Latin *capum (also source of Spanish and Portuguese cabo , Italian capo , Provençal cap ), from Latin caput "head," also "leader, guide, chief person summit capital city" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").
c. 1300, "head, leader, captain the principal or most important part of anything" from Old French chief "leader, ruler, head" of something, "capital city" (10c., Modern French chef ), from Vulgar Latin *capum , from Latin caput "head," also "leader, chief person summit capital city" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). Meaning "head of a clan" is from 1570s later extended to headmen of Native American tribes (by 1713 William Penn, 1680s, called them kings ). Commander-in-chief is attested from 1660s.
George Floyd had ‘violent criminal history’: Minneapolis police union chief
The head of the Minneapolis police union says George Floyd’s “violent criminal history” needs to be remembered and that the protests over his death are the work of a “terrorist movement.”
“What is not being told is the violent criminal history of George Floyd. The media will not air this,” police union president Bob Kroll told his members in a letter posted Monday on Twitter.
Floyd had landed five years behind bars in 2009 for an assault and robbery two years earlier, and before that, had been convicted of charges ranging from theft with a firearm to drugs, the Daily Mail reported.
Floyd died last week after a white cop kneeled on the 46-year-old black man’s neck for nearly 9 minutes, a shocking incident that was caught on video and is sparking widespread violent protests, including in New York City. Floyd had allegedly just tried to pass a phony $20 bill before he died.
“This terrorist movement that is currently occurring was a long time build up which dates back years,” Kroll said in his letter of the protests, adding that some of his city’s issues exist because Minneapolis leaders have been “minimizing the size of our police force and diverting funds to community activists with an anti-police agenda.
“Our chief requested 400 more officers and was flatly denied any. This is what led to this record breaking riot,” he said.
George Floyd Ben Crump Law
The union chief vowed that his organization would help the cop accused of killing Floyd, now-fired Officer Derek Chauvin, and three other officers who were at the scene and are being investigated.
“I’ve worked with the four defense attorneys that are representing each of our four terminated individuals under criminal investigation, in addition with our labor attorneys to fight for their jobs. They were terminated without due process,” Kroll wrote.
Break with the “peace” chiefs
When the leading chiefs of the Old Northwest gathered at Wayne’s call at Greenville, in Ohio, Tecumseh held aloof and, when the Treaty of Greenville was negotiated in August 1795, he refused to recognize it and roundly attacked the “peace” chiefs who signed away land that he contended they did not own. Land, he said, was like the air and water, the common possession of all Indians. This doctrine of communal ownership of the land became the cornerstone of his policy.
Partly because of his superb oratory, which the whites compared with that of the young Henry Clay, the rising political leader in Kentucky, Tecumseh became the spokesman for the Indians in great councils in Ohio, at Urbana (1799) and Chillicothe (1804), that undertook to settle grievances. For a time he studied treaties, spoke at councils, and lived peacefully in Ohio and Indiana.
About 1808 Tecumseh settled in the area of present-day Indiana with his brother Tenskwatawa, called “the Prophet” because he claimed to have had a revelation from the “Master of Life.” There the brothers sought to induce the Indians to discard white customs and goods and to abjure intertribal wars for unity against the white invader. The code of the Prophet had a mysticism that appealed to the Indians, and many became converts.
Articles Featuring Native American Indian Chiefs From History Net Magazines
Many brave and wise Indian leaders appeared and gained respect and fame in the late 18th and early 19th century. Only a few of them, however, had the diplomatic skills and charisma to go beyond leading their own bands and their own tribes to form and lead intertribal alliances. Tecumseh the Shawnee, Red Cloud the Oglala Sioux and Sitting Bull the Hunkpapa Sioux all had the right stuff to become legends.
Born around 1768 somewhere near present-day Springfield, Ohio, Tecumseh developed an early hatred for the white man’s steady encroachment into Indian homelands. When he was 6 years old, after invading Virginia frontiersmen killed his father, his mother took him to the spot and cried out to him: ‘Avenge! Avenge!’ At age 12, too young to be a warrior, Tecumseh watched George Rogers Clark and some 1,000 men defeat his people and burn his town. Filled with bitterness, he swore vengeance on the Long Knives.
By the early 1790s, white Americans were traveling down the Ohio River, turning north and settling on Shawnee hunting grounds. Tecumseh led raiding parties on white settlements and helped defeat two armies sent out to subdue the Indians. Officials in George Washington’s administration feared a great and powerful alliance of the tribes, and the president sent Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne out to ‘tame’ the Indians. At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Tecumseh was the greatest rallying force for the Indians, many times stopping retreats and inspiring them to stand and fight, but he could not prevent a crushing defeat.
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Nor could he prevent chiefs of other tribes from signing the Treaty of Greenville, thus ceding all of what is now the state of Ohio and part of Indiana to the whites. After that there was a period of relative peace between 1795 and 1809. But during those years, William Henry Harrison, a military man who became governor of Indiana Territory, used liquor, oratory and ceremonial pomp to persuade various chiefs to surrender 50 million acres.
By 1805, Tecumseh was traveling between the Appalachians and the Mississippi persuading other tribes to join his confederacy. He told Harrison: ‘The Indians were once a happy race, but now are made miserable by the white people, who are never contented, but always encroaching. They have driven us from the great salt water, forced us over the mountains and would shortly push us into the lakes. But we are determined to go no farther.’ His oratory, of course, did not stop the white invasion, and Tecumseh decided to make use of the religious fervor being spread by his younger brother Tenskwatawa, called ‘the Shawnee Prophet.’ He planned to reform bad Indian habits, to abandon everything the white man had brought into the Indians’ lives, and to try to form a huge confederacy that would include every tribe in U.S. territory.
Within three years the brothers had built Prophetsville, a very large town where the Tippecanoe River flows into the Wabash, and had persuaded many chiefs that this was the last chance to stop the white encroachment. But in 1809, some Ohio Valley chiefs signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne, ceding many square miles of land. Tecumseh decided it was time for action and told Harrison he must give back the land. The governor, of course, refused. Tecumseh thought the confederacy was not quite ready for military action and withdrew. He went south to get the final agreement from a number of tribes to join the alliance. British Indian agents were encouraging an Indian uprising against the Americans.
In 1811, Harrison decided to take action while Tecumseh was away, visiting the southern tribes Tecumseh had instructed Tenskwatawa not to fight Harrison, but the strong-arm governor provoked a battle at Prophetstown by moving troops to within 600 yards of the town. Insulted, the young warriors fought on November 7, 1811. Harrison’s troops won the Battle of Tippecanoe, and the next day they burned the great town, center of the confederacy. The Americans had destroyed the great alliance.
Tecumseh rallied many Indians to the British cause and helped capture Detroit during the War of 1812, but he fell on October 5, 1813, at the Battle of the Thames (near present-day Thamesville, Ontario, Canada), while shouting encouragement to his warriors. The leading proponent of Indian unity was gone, and there was no one to replace him to oppose white settlement east of the Mississippi River.
Half a century passed, and whites began to appear in droves west of the Mississippi. Red Cloud, was born about a decade after Tecumseh’s death, and his Oglala Sioux followers were willing to talk with the whites. There could be peace if the white man stayed out of Sioux hunting grounds and stopped using the Bozeman Trail.
The government called a council for the spring of 1866 at Fort Laramie, on the Platte River not far from the Wyoming-Nebraska border. Negotiations seemed to be going well until Red Cloud and his chiefs found out that Colonel Henry B. Carrington had arrived with 700 soldiers to build forts on the Bozeman Trail. The Federal peace commission learned that there could be no peace unless a treaty had the support of Red Cloud, who was respected not only by the Oglalas but also by the Bruls and other Sioux and by their Cheyenne allies. ‘The Great Father sends us presents and wants us to sell him the road, but the white chief goes with soldiers to steal the road before Indians say Yes or No,’ said Red Cloud. He then stormed out of the Laramie meeting.
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A real war began, with Red Cloud the head soldier. Red Cloud was the only Plains Indian who could gather so many confederates and keep them together long enough to wage a successful campaign against the white man’s incursions. He gathered 250 lodges of Sioux and Cheyennes in the cause, which provided him with about 500 warriors, and carried on continuous guerrilla warfare along the length of the Bozeman Trail. Seventy white people were killed, 20 wounded, and 700 horses, mules and cattle were taken. The soldiers stuck close to their forts.
The Great White Father had to do something, so in 1868 he sent out a peace commission. Whites, according to the Fort Laramie Treaty, were to be banned from Sioux hunting grounds, and their forts were to be abandoned. After the soldiers left, the Indians had the satisfaction of burning the hated forts. The so-called Red Cloud War had been a victory for the Indians. There was relative peace until gold was discovered in the Black Hills in the mid-1870s and the government failed to keep out the white prospectors. Red Cloud, who had come to recognize the hopelessness of challenging the overwhelming numbers of the white man, did not ‘go shooting,’ and that angered many of his people. Although he came to believe in compromise rather than war, Red Cloud never stopped fighting to protect the Sioux culture. Unlike Tecumseh, he did not go out in a blaze of glory. Red Cloud lived until 1909. But like Tecumseh, he had effectively resisted the white invasion…for a while.
The Hunkpapa leader and holy man Sitting Bull replaced Red Cloud as the chief symbol of resistance on the northern Plains. Born in March 1831 near the Grand River (in today’s South Dakota), Sitting Bull tried to avoid whites until the situation became intolerable. Then he called for action, and many Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahos were happy to follow his lead.
In 1868 many divisions of the Sioux rejected Red Cloud’s peace with the United States and did something they had never done before — choosing one man to be the leader of all the Teton Sioux. His name was Sitting Bull. Crazy Horse, a leading warrior, was essentially second in command. The Fort Laramie Treaty, however, largely kept an uneasy peace until all Indians were ordered to go to reservations by January 31, 1876, or be deemed ‘hostiles.’
That March, one of the columns of Brig. Gen. George Crook attacked a Cheyenne village not even on the list of hostiles. The survivors made their way to Sitting Bull up in Powder River country, and he gave them food and shelter. He decided the time for patience was gone. Sitting Bull sent messages to all Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho bands. He wanted them to join him.
In the spring of 1876, he sent out small raiding parties to steal good horses, guns and ammunition, while the U.S. Army mounted a campaign to subdue all Plains Indians who were off their reservation. In June, Sitting Bull danced the Sun Dance until he fell unconscious and had a vision of soldiers falling like rain. Not only did he believe in his vision, but so, too, did most of the warriors around him. The Indians would fight the soldiers and be victorious!
On June 17, Crazy Horse fought Crook to a standstill at the Rosebud. Sitting Bull’s vision had not yet come true, but one of the leading white fighting men had been knocked out of the picture. Sitting Bull moved his great allied camp to find more plentiful food for his people and horses. (see ‘Sitting Bull’s Movable Village’ in the December 2000 Wild West). He eventually chose a place along the Little Bighorn River where the grass was good and there was game nearby. That is where Lt. Col. George Custer and the 7th Cavalry found them.
Although Sitting Bull and his allies won a great battle, on June 25-26 at the Little Bighorn, they could not win the war. Most of the Indians, hungry and desperate, returned to the reservations the next year. Sitting Bull instead went to Canada, where he found peace for a while. On July 19, 1881, he, along with 187 followers, turned himself in at Fort Buford, Dakota Territory.
Sitting Bull mostly stayed at the Standing Rock Agency beginning in 1883 and continued to have much influence. When the Ghost Dance movement stirred up the Sioux in 1890, he became — at least in some eyes — a feared figure once more. On December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull died in a fight near his cabin on the Grand River when Indian police attempted to arrest him.
Of Tecumseh, Red Cloud and Sitting Bull, which one was the greatest? Tecumseh’s widespread and powerful alliance was betrayed by his brother. Sitting Bull put together the most complete and famous single Indian victory. Red Cloud, however, actually defeated the U.S. Army over a long campaign and temporarily shamed it. The nod probably must go to Red Cloud.
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This article was written by J. Jay Myers and originally appeared in the October 2001 issue of Wild West.
For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Wild West magazine today!
Chief Mangwende (Nhowe people) history
Mangwende dynasty was started by the patriarchy of the Nhowe people, Sakubvunza in 1606 who established the Shona tradition state of Nhowe. Mukarakate is a place in the northern eastern Murewa district of Zimbabwe. It is situated in Mashonaland East province and is almost entirely inhabited by Shona-speaking people of the Zezuru dialect. The traditional leaders/rulers of the area are the Nhowe people whose chieftainship is called Mangwende. Many of the Nhowe people use Mukarakate as a surname because it is the name of the great – great ancestor of the tribe. Their totem is ” Moyo Muzukuru” which uses the bull as its symbolic animal, the heart is sacred not the whole body. In 2013 the then chief Jonathan Tafirenyika Chibanda passed on in South Africa. He was the President of the Chiefs Council. He was the son of Chataika Chibanda Mangwende. He became chief Mangwende in 1926 and died in 1936. He only ruled for 10 years.
Their chieftainship employs a system of collateral succession which alternates between houses of the dynasty. Mhotani (Bokoto)and Chitopi (Hundungu) houses ruled between (1833-1878). Hundungu is the first person to assume the ruling title Mangwende with proper infrastructure from the Rozvi. There was no common name in the reference to the chieftainship and previous chiefs used family names in respect to the clan , Nhowe.
Chieftainships and dates
Mhotani (Bokoto) and Hundungu ( Chitopi) are the highest ranking names in the modern day history of Nhowe politics and they represent both chieftainships. In the case of Mungate 1 (Mushawatu) and Gatsi 1(Bukuto) houses are purely for administrative purposes and lineages lived in close proximity for over 3 centuries at Mahopo Chitopi Nyakambiri river near Marondera.
The Mangwende clan dominated the geographical area between Makoni and Mutoko in Mashonaland east in Zimbabwe and existed in the political format of traditional states. Mangwende had a fighting force that fought rival clans and was often called to defend allies in battle. Within their territory the Mangwende chieftainship had several chiefs of surrounding clans under their protectorate who would pledge allegiance to chief Mangwende in return for military support if attacked by other rival chiefs.
Mangwende administered over welfare , security and all order of small chieftainships clans and presided in ceremonial duties.
The house of Hundungu who was chief from 1859-1878 and was the first to assume the title of chief Mangwende with proper Rozvi structure. Prior to this period all chiefs (mambo) were called or known by their family names. It was at this time that there was a bit of animosity between the two chieftainship lineages as it was alleged that the other lineage had attacked the other with a flock of bees from a charm (Gona).
Katerere father to Chirodza and Chibanda ruled for one year and died 1878-79 and was replaced by Mungate son of Hundungu who ruled from 1880-1924. He was the chief by that time when the white settlers arrived in Zimbabwe, then Rhodesia. Most of the late Mangwende chiefs are buried at the Mangwende shrine in Mahopo Masekwa. The Bukuto house decided to bury their chiefs at Bokoto in Mukaravate. Only 3 chiefs were not buried at Mangwende shrine, Musekwa Mahopo being Katerere, Enoch and Chibanda 11.
White colonialists arrived around the period 1890 and disguised as hunters and missionaries and settled in the territory controlled by chief Mungate Mangwende. In about 1896, chief Mangwende fought white settlers who tried to impose on his territory in the famous battle known as the 1896 Rebellion. It led to his forces to defend chief Makoni who had also been involved in the resisting of white settlement rule.
Chief Mangate’s oldest son Muchemwa was given orders by his father to fight the colonialists white settlers in the 1896 with the uprising in conjunction with Mbuya Nehanda and Kaguvi. Mungate made peace with the white settlers in 1896 his son Muchemwa and other members of Nhowe continued to wedge a guerilla type of war. This continued upto 1903 and ended in the fierce battle in Bokoto hills which lasted several weeks.
Muchemwa brokered a deal with the white settlers that he could only lay down his arms together with his lieutenants on condition that he did not face prosecution.They agreed on one condition that he resided next to Murewa District Headquarters where he will be monitored. After the rebellion the white settlers took over the fertile land in Mahopo Musekwa and chief Mungate was moved to a place called Rota Chamachinda. The village around Murehwa district centre is known as the Mangwende village at the time of Muchemwa’s death in 1909 (murdered his father while still on throne) but he left three sons Mbumbira, Munhuwepayi and Maiziveyi.
Munhuwepayi became a chief of Mangwende village and the entire Murehwa area from 1937- 1960.
He was disposed from chieftainship for continually disagreeing and criticising white settlers administration decisions which deemed to be gross insubordination. Another contributing reason he participated in politics 1950-50s up to independence 1980. Once dethroned he was sent to detention at Gonakudzingwa restriction camp (where they banish and sleep) in the Southern Rhodesia near Mozambique border. He was not permitted to enter the near Salisbury (25 km radius) or visiting his relatives and children. He died in 1988 and buried at Mangwende shrine. It was his brother’s sons who performed the rights for the chief Munhuwepayi to be buried at the shrine.