Can you identify this seemingly British uniform in a presumably French portrait?

Can you identify this seemingly British uniform in a presumably French portrait?

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The uniform in this presumably French portrait. The portrait was handed down through unknown generations within the de Boissoudy family in the South of France.

Latest family members are perplexed as to why their ancestor is in a "British" uniform. I am speculating that he is not in a British uniform.

Can anyone identify the uniform in this portrait?

From the English Wikipedia on Red Coat (military uniform) regarding France:

The Irish Brigade of the French Army (1690-1792) wore red coats supposedly to show their origins and continued loyalty to the cause of Jacobitism. Red coats were also worn by the Swiss Guard and other Swiss mercenary regiments in the French Army from the mid-17th to early 19th centuries.

Can anyone identify the uniform in this portrait?

Not easily, there isn't enough detail.

According to Wiklipedia:

The entire Danish Army wore red coats up to 1848 and particular units in the German, French, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, Bulgarian and Romanian armies retained red uniforms until 1914 or later. Amongst other diverse examples, Spanish hussars, Japanese Navy and United States Marine Corps bandsmen, and Serbian generals had red tunics as part of their gala or court dress during this period. In 1827 United States Artillery company musicians were wearing red coats as a reversal of their branch facing colour.[47] However the extensive use of this colour by British, Indian and other Imperial soldiers over a period of nearly three hundred years made red uniform a veritable icon of the British Empire.

You might ask on Bruce Bassett-Powell's Uniformology

College Interview Questions

Be prepared for your college interview. It can be a powerful tool for showcasing your interests and demonstrating your reasons for wanting to attend in a college.

If a college uses interviews as part of the application process, it is because the school has holistic admissions. Most college interview questions are meant to help you and the interviewer find out if the college is a good match for you. Rarely will you get a question that puts you on the spot or tries to make you feel stupid. Remember, the college is also trying to make a good impression and wants to get to know you as a person.

From the Admissions Desk

"The best interviews are nearly always when students are comfortable talking about themselves without being boastful. It’s also easy to tell if students have prepared for the conversation, and it is always a better conversation when students have taken time to reflect on what’s important to them and to research questions that they have about the institution. "

–Kerr Ramsay
Vice President for Undergraduate Admissions, High Point University

Try to relax and be yourself, and make an effort to avoid common interview mistakes. The interview should be a pleasant experience, and you can use it to show off your personality in ways that aren't possible elsewhere in the application.

How Pepsi became the 6th largest military in the world

Posted On January 28, 2019 18:44:08

Almost everyone in the world has a favorite soda that they enjoy whenever they get the opportunity. But, is your favorite tasty drink worth giving up a military arsenal big enough to stock a whole country? Well, at one point in history, the Russians thought so.

In 1959, then-President Dwight Eisenhower wanted to bring our America culture to citizens of the Soviet Union and show them the benefits of capitalism.

To showcase their ideologies, the American government arranged the “American National Exhibition” in Moscow and sent then-Vice President Richard Nixon to attend the opening — but things were about to take a turn for the worse.

Related: This is the cheesy ‘Top Gun’ commercial Pepsi made in the 1980s

Nixon and Soviet leader Khrushchev got into an argument over the topic of capitalism versus communism. Their conversation got so heated that the vice president of Pepsi intervened and offered the Soviet leader a cup of his delicious, sugary beverage — and he drank it.

Pepsi saves the day!

Years later, the people of the Soviet Union wanted to strike a deal that would bring Pepsi products to their country permanently. However, there was an issue of how they would pay for their newest beverage, as their money wasn’t accepted throughout the world.

So, the clever country decided to buy Pepsi using a universal currency: vodka!

In the late-1980s, Russia’s initial agreement to serve Pepsi in their country was about to expire, but this time, their vodka wasn’t going to be enough to cover the cost.

So, the Russians did what any country would do in desperate times: They traded Pepsi a fleet of subs and boats for a whole lot of soda. The new agreement included 17 submarines, a cruiser, a frigate, and a destroyer.

A Soviet diesel submarine.

The combined fleet was traded for three billion dollars worth of Pepsi. Yes, you read that right. Russia loves their Pepsi.

The historical exchange caused Pepsi to become the 6th most powerful military in the world, for a moment, before they sold the fleet to a Swedish company for scrap recycling.

Also Read: That time someone sued Pepsi because they didn’t give him a Harrier jet

Check out Not Exactly Normal‘s video below to get the complete rundown of this sweet story for yourself.



Early years

18th Century

Ulick Gamp, the first Minister for Magic

The Ministry of Magic was founded in 1707 to succeed the earlier Wizards' Council, with Head of the Wizengamot Ulick Gamp serving as the first Minister for Magic, from 1707-1718. Gamp had the onerous job of policing a fractious and frightened community adjusting to the imposition of the International Statute of Secrecy. His greatest legacy was to found the Department of Magical Law Enforcement. Ώ]

In 1717, the Ministry classified the Imperius, Cruciatus, and Avada Kedavra curses as the Unforgivable Curses, with the strictest of penalties attached to their use. Γ] By the 1990s, their use would command a life sentence in Azkaban.

Damocles Rowle was the Minister for Magic from 1718-1726. He was elected on a platform of being 'tough on Muggles'. When the Ministry proposed a purpose-built wizarding prison on a remote Hebridean island, Rowle swiftly scrapped the plans and insisted on using Azkaban instead, which was carried through despite protests. Censured by the International Confederation of Wizards, he was eventually forced to step down. Ώ]

Perseus Parkinson was the Minister for Magic from 1726-1733. He tried to pass a bill making it illegal to marry a Muggle. This proved to be against the public mood the wizarding community, tired of anti-Muggle sentiment and wanting peace, voted him out at the first opportunity. Ώ] Parkinson was also pro-Azkaban.

Eldritch Diggory was the Minister for Magic from 1733-1747. He was a popular Minister who first established an Auror recruitment programme. While visiting Azkaban, Diggory realised what conditions inside were like. Prisoners were mostly insane and a graveyard had been established to accommodate those that died of despair. He established a committee to explore alternatives to Azkaban, or at least to remove the Dementors as guards. Before they could reach any decision, however, Diggory caught Dragon Pox and died. Ώ]

Albert Boot was the Minister for Magic from 1747-1752. He was considered a likeable but inept Minister, resigning after a mismanaged goblin rebellion. Ώ]

Basil Flack was the Minister for Magic for two months in 1752. He was the shortest serving Minister, having resigned after the rebelling goblins joined forces with werewolves. Ώ]

Hesphaestus Gore was the Minister for Magic from 1752-1770. One of the earliest Aurors, he successfully put down a number of revolts by magical beings, although historians felt his refusal to contemplate rehabilitation programmes for werewolves ultimately led to more attacks. He renovated and reinforced the prison of Azkaban. Ώ]

Maximilian Crowdy was the Minister for Magic from 1770-1781. Father of nine, he was a charismatic leader who routed out several extremist pure-blood groups planning Muggle attacks. When the Revolutionary War began in 1775, the Ministry of Magic were asked by MACUSA to decide whether they were to intervene and help their Muggle neighbours. In 1777, MACUSA President Elizabeth McGilliguddy asked Crowdy what they had decided. He replied with a simple four-word letter stating that they were "sitting this one out", to which she replied with an even shorter letter stating "mind you do". Crowdy's mysterious death in office was the subject of numerous books and conspiracy theories. Ώ] Δ]

Porteus Knatchbull was the Minister for Magic from 1781-1789. He was called in confidentially in 1782 by the Muggle Prime Minister of the day, Lord Frederick North, to see whether he could help with King George III's emerging mental instability. When it leaked out that Lord North believed in wizards, he was forced to resign after a motion of no confidence. Ώ]

Unctuous Osbert was the Minister for Magic from 1789-1798. Because he was too much influenced by pure-bloods of wealth and status, many saw him as little more a puppet to his own advisor Septimus Malfoy, who would have served as the Ministry's de facto head. Ώ]

Artemisia Lufkin was the Minister from 1798-1811. The first witch to ever hold the office, she established the Department of International Magical Cooperation, lobbying hard and successfully to have a Quidditch World Cup tournament held in Britain during her term. Ώ]

19th Century

Grogan Stump was the Minister from 1811-1819. Very popular and passionate fan of Quidditch team Tutshill Tornados, he established the Department of Magical Games and Sports and managed to steer through legislation on magical beasts and beings that had long been a source of contention. Ώ]

Josephina Flint was the Minister from 1819-1827. She revealed an unhealthy anti-Muggle bias in office she disliked new Muggle technology such as the telegraph, which she claimed interfered with proper wand function. Ώ]

Ottaline Gambol was the Minister from 1827-1835. A much more forward-looking Minister, Gambol established committees to investigate Muggle brainpower, which seemed, during this period of the British Empire, to be greater than some wizards had credited. Ώ]

Radolphus Lestrange was the Minister from 1835-1841. He was a reactionary, who attempted to close down the Department of Mysteries, which ignored him. He eventually resigned due to ill health, which was widely rumoured to be inability to cope with the strains of office. Ώ]

Hortensia Milliphutt was the Minister from 1841-1849. She introduced more legislation than any other sitting Minister, much of it useful, but some wearisome (hat pointiness and so on), which ultimately resulted in her political downfall. Ώ]

Evangeline Orpington was the Minister from 1849-1855. A good friend of Queen Victoria's, who never realised that she was a witch, let alone Minister for Magic. Orpington was believed to have intervened magically (and illegally) in the Crimean War. Ώ]

Priscilla Dupont was the Minister from 1855-1858. She conceived an irrational loathing of the Muggle Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, to an extent that caused such trouble (coins turning to frogspawn in his coat pockets, etc.) that she was forced to step down. Ironically, Palmerston was forced to resign by the Muggles two days later. Ώ]

Dugald McPhail was the Minister from 1858-1865. A safe pair of hands. While the Muggle parliament underwent a period of marked upheaval, the Ministry of Magic knew a period of welcome calm. Ώ]

Faris "Spout-hole" Spavin was the Minister from 1865-1903. Longest-ever serving Minister for Magic, and also the most long-winded, he survived an 'assassination attempt' (kicking) from a centaur who resented the punchline of Spavin's infamous 'a centaur, a ghost and a dwarf walk into a bar' joke. Attended Queen Victoria's funeral in an admiral's hat and spats, at which point the Wizengamot suggested gently that it was time he move aside (Spavin was 147 when he left office). Ώ]

Early 20th Century

Venusia Crickerly was the Minister for Magic from 1903-1912. Second ex-Auror to take office and considered both competent and likeable, Crickerly died in a freak gardening accident (mandrake related). Ώ]

Archer Evermonde was the Minister from 1912-1923. In post during the Muggle First World War, Evermonde passed emergency legislation forbidding witches and wizards to get involved, lest they risk mass infractions of the International Statute of Secrecy. Thousands defied him, aiding Muggles where they could. Ώ]

Lorcan McLaird was the Minister from 1923-1925. A gifted wizard, but an unlikely politician, McLaird was an exceptionally taciturn man who preferred to communicate in monosyllables and expressive puffs of smoke that he produced through the end of his wand. He was forced from office out of sheer irritation at his eccentricities. Ώ]

Hector Fawley was the Minister for Magic from 1925-1939. Undoubtedly voted in because of his marked difference to McLaird, the ebullient and flamboyant Fawley did not take sufficiently seriously the threat presented to the wizarding community by Gellert Grindelwald. He paid with his job. Ώ]

Leonard Spencer-Moon was the Minister from 1939-1948. A sound Minister who rose through the ranks from being tea-boy in the Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes, he oversaw a great period of international wizarding and Muggle conflict. Enjoyed a good working relationship with Winston Churchill. Ώ]

Wilhelmina Tuft was the Minister from 1948-1959. She was a cheery witch, who presided over a period of welcome peace and prosperity. Died in office after discovering, too late, her allergy to Alihotsy-flavoured fudge. Ώ]

Late 20th Century

Political warfare

Ignatius Tuft was the Minister from 1959-1962. The son of his predecessor, Ignatius was a hard-liner who capitalised on his mother's popularity to gain election. He promised to institute a controversial and dangerous Dementor breeding programme, and was forced from office. Ώ]

Nobby Leach was the Minister from 1962-1968. First Muggle-born Minister for Magic, his appointment caused consternation among the old (pure-blood) guard, many of whom resigned government posts in protest. He always denied having anything to do with England's 1966 Quidditch World Cup win. Left office after contracting a mysterious illness (conspiracy theories abound). Ώ]

Eugenia Jenkins was the Minister from 1968-1975. Jenkins dealt competently with pure-blood riots during Squib Rights marches in the late 1960s, but was soon confronted with the first rise of Lord Voldemort. Jenkins was soon ousted from office as inadequate to the challenge. Ώ]

Harold Minchum was the Minister from 1975-1980. Seen as a hard-liner, he placed even more Dementors around Azkaban, but was unable to contain Voldemort's apparently unstoppable rise to power. Ώ]

Millicent Bagnold was the Minister from 1980-1990. A highly able Minister, she had to answer to the International Confederation of Wizards for the number of breaches of the International Statute of Secrecy on the day and night after Harry Potter survived Lord Voldemort's attack. Acquitted herself magnificently with the now infamous words: 'I assert our inalienable right to party', which drew cheers from all present. Ώ]

Shortly before Minister Millicent Bagnold's retirement in 1990, many of the wizarding population wanted Albus Dumbledore to become Minister. Α] He was offered the job four times, Ε] but turned it down, because of his previous negative experiences with power.

Igor Karkaroff's Ministry hearing

The most likely person to become Minister from that point on was Bartemius Crouch Senior, who, as Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement, had gained popularity from his purges of Death Eaters after the first fall of Lord Voldemort, including arresting his own son for participating in the Cruciatus Curse torture of Alice and Frank Longbottom. Ζ] However, he fell out of favour when people suspected that his son's actions and 'death' in Azkaban were the result of Crouch neglecting his son and by not spending enough time at home due to his ministerial pursuits. Ζ]

Under Cornelius Fudge

Cornelius Fudge was Minister for Magic during the events surrounding Lord Voldemort's second rise to power. He became Minister for Magic in 1990 Η] and stayed on as Minister until being sacked on 2 July 1996. ⎖] Early on in his administration he requested frequent help from wizards such as Albus Dumbledore, but Fudge later became suspicious of Dumbledore, who he believed was trying to usurp Fudge's position.

Sirius Black wanted poster

In the summer of 1992, Head of the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office Arthur Weasley proposed a Muggle Protection Act, leading to a massive Ministry crackdown for illegally enchanted or dark objects. At the same time, the Improper Use of Magic Office sent Harry Potter a letter of reprimand after the Malfoy family house-elf, Dobby, performed magic in an attempt to keep him away from Hogwarts. In early 1993, Fudge went to Hogwarts to send Rubeus Hagrid to Azkaban on suspicion of opening the Chamber of Secrets, an accusation that had led to his expulsion from Hogwarts 50 years earlier. Hagrid was eventually freed in June after the trio solved the mystery of the Chamber of Secrets.

In the summer of 1993, wrongfully convicted "mass-murderer" Sirius Black escaped from Azkaban, leading to a massive Ministry manhunt. In early 1994, Severus Snape captured Black and returned him to Fudge's custody, but Harry Potter and Hermione Granger helped him escape using a Ministry Time-Turner and Buckbeak the Hippogriff, thus making the Ministry a "laughingstock". ⎗]

Daily Prophet smear campaign against Harry Potter

Organising the 1994-1995 Triwizard Tournament involved substantial efforts from the Department of International Magical Cooperation, the Department of Magical Games and Sports, and other parts of the Ministry. The Tournament concluded with the death of Cedric Diggory and the Rebirth of Lord Voldemort on 24 June, 1995. Fudge refused to believe Dumbledore and Harry Potter's accounts of these events, leading Dumbledore to reactivate the Order of the Phoenix to counter Voldemort. Because of Fudge's refusal to see the truth, the wizarding community was put at a disadvantage when dealing with the imminent threat of Lord Voldemort and his followers.

Harry Potter's hearing for the use of underage magic

After Voldemort's return, the Ministry campaigned to discredit Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter, as Fudge, his mind "twisted and warped by fear", refused to believe this horrifying truth. This trend of attempting to minimise the immediate damage included the Ministry's attempts to get Harry drummed out of the wizarding community, forcing on teachers an oversight on Hogwarts, removing privileges from Dumbledore and anyone who accepted his statement that Voldemort had returned, and encouraging the Daily Prophet to publish stories mocking and denigrating Dumbledore and Harry.

On 12 August, Harry was summoned to a disciplinary hearing at the Ministry, pertaining to what the Ministry termed "offences committed under the Decree for the Reasonable Restriction of Underage Sorcery and the International Statute of Secrecy". The hearing was changed to a full court trial, which was unorthodox and was outside the context of the law, in a biased and obvious attempt to further discredit Harry. ⎘]

Battle of the Department of Mysteries

Daily Prophet, mass Azkaban breakout

Finally, the Ministry had to hide the reason for the mass breakout from Azkaban, as the Ministry could not explain, or justify, the defection of the Dementors. Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters tried to retrieve a specific prophecy pertaining to Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort from the Hall of Prophecy on Level Nine, the Department of Mysteries. In order to do that, they placed both Broderick Bode ⎙] and Sturgis Podmore ⎚] under the Imperius Curse to no avail, as only Harry could take it from its shelf.

Daily Prophet confirms Voldemort's return

Shortly after midnight on 18 June, 1996, the Death Eaters lured Harry and and five other Dumbledore's Army members into the deserted Ministry. A battle broke out over a prophecy concerning Harry and the Dark Lord. The D.A. members did well holding the Death Eaters at bay until help arrived. The Order of the Phoenix went to rescue them, and the Death Chamber standoff ensued, which resulted in the death of Sirius Black at the hands of his own cousin Bellatrix Lestrange. The standoff also included a duel between Voldemort and Dumbledore in the Atrium of the Ministry. ⎛]

After the battle, Fudge and several other witnesses saw Voldemort with their own eyes, and this position of denial became untenable. Thus, the Ministry was forced to acknowledge the return of the Dark Lord and Fudge was unceremoniously replaced by Rufus Scrimgeour, although Fudge was allowed to aid in an "advisory capacity". ⎜] The public was then made aware of the growing threat to its population and this marked the start of open warfare.

Under Rufus Scrimgeour

In response to the war situation the country was facing, Rufus Scrimgeour, the previous Head of the Auror Office, was appointed Fudge's successor on 2 July 1996, ⎖] and was responsible for the creation of several new bureaucracies, such as the Office for the Detection and Confiscation of Counterfeit Defensive Spells and Protective Objects. ⎝]

Typical Ministry of Magic poster warning about the dangers of the Death Eaters during Scrimgeour's time as Minister

Despite this, Scrimgeour did not fare much better than Fudge. Again reacting to public opinion, Scrimgeour tried desperately to make the Ministry look like it was making progress despite the reality being the contrary, such as by wrongfully imprisoning Stan Shunpike. Under Scrimgeour's regime, there was no progress. He was too concerned with the appearance of false safety, something that would ultimately led to his downfall and the downfall of the Ministry.

Harry had two meetings with Scrimgeour, in which Harry's co-operation with the Ministry was solicited for his propaganda value: the Ministry wanted Harry to be the "poster child" for the Ministry so as to give the public hope, by telling them that the Ministry remained a source of safety, strength, and that "the Chosen One" endorsed the Ministry's investigations. Harry turned Scrimgeour down flat both times. Harry made it perfectly clear that he did not approve of what the Ministry was doing and made his opinion of Scrimgeour known. This led the Minister for Magic to believe that Harry was arrogant and the two parted on bad terms. The two remained on bad terms during the reading of the last will and testament of Dumbledore and it came to an argument in which Scrimgeour lost control of his temper. Harry stated that he will never cooperate with the Ministry if they keep conducting themselves in a less then positive way as they have previously done.

In the summer of 1997, shortly after Albus Dumbledore's murder, the Atrium at the Ministry was the setting for a speech by Scrimgeour about the "dark times" in which the wizarding world was living, and how the Ministry remained "strong" and active in the fight against the dark forces. ⎞] In the meantime, the Death Eaters were managing to infiltrate the Ministry by magically controlling some of its higher-ranking officials. ⎟] As a result, later in the summer, on the evening of 1 August, 1997, the Ministry was the stage of a silent coup, during which Scrimgeour was murdered ⎠] while refusing to give the Death Eaters any information on Harry Potter. ⎡]

Under Pius Thicknesse

Four consequential members of the new regime: from left to right, Albert Runcorn (investigator of alleged Muggle-borns), Dolores Umbridge (Head of the Muggle-Born Registration Commission), Pius Thicknesse (Minister for Magic), and Corban Yaxley (Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement)

After the Death Eater coup, the Ministry of Magic was headed by Pius Thicknesse, who was under Death Eater control by the Imperius Curse. Voldemort chose not to openly reveal himself as Minister, so as to keep an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty within the community. Much more security was added to the building and personnel were monitored. In addition, lower-ranking employees were now forced to go to work via a toilet network, ⎢] accessible inside a set of underground public toilets in Whitehall only the senior-ranking personnel are permitted Apparition and Floo Network access. ⎢] The Ministry became very corrupt during Pius's time in office.

Under Thicknesse's control, the Ministry became totalitarian, placing surveillance upon those of whom it was suspicious, such as Arthur Weasley, and creating the Muggle-Born Registration Commission to prosecute Muggle-borns for allegedly stealing magic. Unfair trials were held to weed out Muggle-borns and to give the impression of justice, although it was anything but. The Ministry also acquired the motto 'Magic is Might', which was inscribed upon a sculpture with a witch and wizard sitting on thrones made of Muggles. ⎣] Death Eaters such as Corban Yaxley gained high positions within the Ministry, as well.

Snatchers or bounty hunters were also employed by the Ministry. Snatchers appeared to be a relatively informal organisation with the main purpose of rounding up or arresting Muggle-borns and "blood traitors". Snatcher camps were set up all over Britain. If they caught their intended targets, said targets were killed or sent to Azkaban.

Under Kingsley Shacklebolt

In 1998, after the destruction of Lord Voldemort and the end of the Second Wizarding War, Kingsley Shacklebolt became Minister for Magic and led a massive reform of the Ministry. He did this in an effort to weed out corruption and prejudice. ⎤] Kingsley replenished the Auror Office and saw that the Death Eaters that escaped custody were caught and tried for their crimes against the wizarding community.

The revitalisation and reform included the efforts of Harry Potter and Ron Weasley in the Auror Office, and Hermione Granger advancing the rights of non-humans, and eradicating pro-pure-blood laws in the Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures and later the Department of Magical Law Enforcement. ⎥] The Ministry was a much happier place to work since the reforms.


Persona 4

A well-known detective, Naoto was dubbed the "Detective Prince" by the media. She is first mentioned when the department which Ryotaro Dojima works has no lead upon their investigations for the bizarre murder case, resulting in Dojima's superiors employing Naoto to assist them, an action which greatly disturbs Dojima. Furthermore, Naoto claims that the only reward she wants for solving the case is the truth, and wants no assistance from other departments, further annoying Dojima.

Naoto first appears on-screen during the Investigation Team's investigation of Kanji Tatsumi as the potential next victim. Incidentally, Naoto was also able to deduce that Kanji would be the next victim, and tries to seek clues by speaking to him. During that time, Naoto expresses interest in the case, though Kanji mistakes it as Naoto being interested in him.

Naoto introduces "himself" to the group.

Naoto later enrolls at Yasogami High School, immediately attracting the admiration of others. However, her serious nature often leads to her ignoring her admirers and classmates.

During one of the Investigation Team's meetings regarding the suspect in the case, Mitsuo Kubo, Naoto appears and chastises the Team's efforts, deeming their investigation as nothing more but a "game." She tells them that their game is about to end, and that Yasoinaba will soon return to its peaceful, rustic self. Annoyed by her words, Rise Kujikawa tells Naoto that she is the one who was treating the case like a game. Surprised by the idol, Naoto reluctantly accepts that what Rise said might be true, lamenting that detectives are just employed for the time being, and once the case has been solved, they are simply pushed aside.

After the arrest of Mitsuo Kubo, the first suspect in the case, Naoto remains suspicious and decides to become bait to lure the culprit. She is interviewed by a TV show and subsequently kidnapped and thrown into the Midnight Channel. Through the Team's efforts to gather clues, they found out that Naoto, despite her professional personality, is actually a workaholic who chooses to ignore the police department's advice and work alone. As such, she is often deemed a kid trying too hard by the officers.

If Naoto isn't rescued by the 10/5 deadline, Kanji will call the protagonist and tell him that they found a body, it was Naoto's. Kanji angrily demands what's going on and why this happened before the protagonist drops his phone, blacks out, and is summoned to the Velvet Room, where he was given the choice to go back a week later by Igor.

The Investigation Team eventually manages to detect Naoto's location in the Midnight Channel, an industrial secret laboratory, and sets out to rescue the detective. The Secret Laboratory symbolizes Naoto's insecurities, that she fears being ratted out as a woman and getting her reputation sullied in the police force as a result.

Shadow Naoto offering Naoto a sex change operation.

The Investigation Team eventually finds Naoto, along with her Shadow, who is busy preparing for a "body-altering operation." Shadow Naoto taunts Naoto, saying that in reality she is nothing more than just a child trying to play "superhero," and that if Naoto doesn't become a "grown big boy," then Naoto will never find a reason for living. Confused and surprised, Naoto denies the Shadow's claims. However, the Shadow then reveals a secret: Naoto was born female. It clarifies that the "body-altering operation" was to be a sex-change operation. Fueled by Naoto's rejection and internal suffering, her Shadow transforms and attacks the party.

Shadow Naoto discussing the operation.

Naoto's Shadow is a robotic doppelgänger equipped with large toy-like laser guns, rocket feet and a jetpack, representing Naoto's resentment towards being treated like a child and not taken seriously, as well as the pressure she feels from working in a sexist occupation dominated by men who don't take women seriously. It can also be something of a split personality, as it can talk seriously one minute, and act helpless and innocent the next.

After defeating the Shadow, Naoto reveals that her parents were detectives as well, but were both killed in one of their investigations. She acknowledges her parents' passion for their job, and wishes to become a "hard-boiled" detective, inheriting the title of "Shirogane," but fears as long as she herself is a girl, she can never achieve her dreams. She eventually realizes that what she wanted was not to become a man, but to be accepted and respected as her true self, and her Shadow acknowledges her resolution, transforming into Sukuna-Hikona, her Persona.

Dojima begging Naoto to save Nanako.

For the remainder of the game, Naoto's detective skills prove to be a great asset to the Investigation Team. She arranges for the Investigation Team to visit a doctor for a physical check up, due to concerns about being in an otherworld filled with potentially poisonous fog having possible ill side effects. She also manages to win a beauty pageant despite not appearing for the swimsuit part. After Nanako's kidnapping, Ryotaro Dojima begs Naoto to save his daughter. After Nanako "dies," Naoto is extremely upset, feeling she was at fault for making Taro Namatame talk instead of rescuing Nanako back in Heaven when Nanako said she couldn't breathe.

When the real killer, Tohru Adachi is found, in response to his misanthropic ideas, Naoto tells him people cannot live alone and that they need each other in order to survive, and notes it would only be natural for people who remove themselves from human society to find it difficult to live in it, but since Adachi throws away his own humanity as well, he claims to find life troublesome while at the same time causing trouble for others, stating that his logic is that of a immature, egotistic brat.

After Inaba is saved, Naoto visits the protagonist at his departure.

Social Link

The protagonist creates the Fortune Arcana Social Link with Naoto after rescuing her, and teams up with her to solve a challenge given to the Shirogane clan by the "Phantom Thief." The protagonist needs maximum Knowledge and Courage stat to initiate the Social Link, and the earliest opportunity to do so is on October 21st. Despite the lack of time to develop this Social Link, Naoto's is one of the few that can be advanced on rainy weather, when most other Social Links are unavailable.

Simply attempting to talk to Naoto while she's in school will not start the Social Link. The protagonist first needs to talk to a man in black at the North Shopping District while it's not raining. The protagonist will then receive a card which causes the Link to start when presented to Naoto.

In the events of their investigation, the Phantom Thief's identity is revealed to be Naoto's grandfather, who wishes to help her get back her passion of investigating cases for the truth, rather than investigating for the sake of the Shirogane name.

By the end of the Fortune Arcana Social Link, Naoto acknowledges her passion for investigation, and thanks the protagonist. Having recognized the change in her psyche and resolution, Naoto's Persona, Sukuna-Hikona, transfigures into Yamato-Takeru.

To pursue a Lovers Route with Naoto, the protagonist must initiate the Rank 6 & 8 events. During Rank 6, the protagonist must choose "I'm glad you're a girl" as their 3rd answer. During Rank 8, the protagonist and Naoto will arrive at the Shopping District where Naoto claims that someone has told her that the Phantom Thief has been sighted around said area. They will then head to the shrine where a man brandishes a knife at Naoto. The protagonist will have three options Protect Naoto, Fight alongside Naoto or Do nothing. Doing the first one will at first cause a negative reaction from her the second will cause the same thing, but she'll be less frustrated the third will simply agitate her.

Afterwards, the protagonist will be given a choice of whether to pursue a relationship with her or remain her friend. Choosing the top option ('Because I love you') will cause her to become embarrassed and conflicted she'll even state that because the protagonist has said that, she can no longer look him in the eye. This will advance the link to Rank 8, and cause Naoto to run home.

In the Rank 9 event, Naoto will read off the final challenge from the thief and ask the protagonist where she likes to be for the most positive reaction, answer "Somewhere high." She will then ask herself something she can't stand doing. Again, for the most positive reaction, answer "Throwing things away." Provided the protagonist pursued a relationship with her, she'll blush and ask if she mentioned it before.

She and the protagonist then go to the hill and investigate the trash can, where she will obtain the final item, The Detective's Pocketbook. She will begin to curse her grandfather for scheming the entire event and sit on the bench with the protagonist. Once again, the event differs depending on the relationship that was chosen. During the Lovers Route, after Rank 9 has been reached, she will confess her love to the protagonist.

Her reward item for reaching Rank 10 is the Detective's Badge, which allows the protagonist to fuse Norn.

Should the protagonist choose the second option, which results in the protagonist replying that he prefers Naoto's voice to be higher, Naoto will wear a seifuku (female school uniform) on December 24th to meet the protagonist, should the protagonist accept her invitation to spend the night together. Her gift for him is a handmade watch that notifies him of the distance of her location, reading Distance <1m. In the Japanese version, Naoto instead asks the protagonist whether it is weird for her to use male pronouns (僕, boku) ? to describe herself.


In Persona 4 Golden, the addition of bikes for the Investigation Team introduced a unique new way of obtaining skills for party members. By going on special forms of dates with each party member, involving the use of the bikes, one is given the option of either having the party member in question learn a brand-new skill or relearn any old skill that they have forgotten. The bike skills available to Naoto are listed below.

Additionally, like with Rise Kujikawa in Persona 4, each party member is able to learn new skills upon the protagonist's progression of their Social Link. The Social Link skills that Naoto learns upon development of her Social Link are also listed below.

Naoto can also perform a Tag Team attack with Kanji called "Beauty & The Beast" when the following requirements are achieved: Naoto and Kanji are both in the active party and an "All-Out Attack" is performed, but an enemy remains. When performing "Beauty & The Beast," Naoto and Kanji will both run up to each other and summon their respective Personas. Bones will surround them and the enemy as a skull appears from the ground. The skull will emit a bright light from its mouth, damaging the enemy.

During the months of January and February, if Naoto's Social Link is maxed out, the protagonist may spend time with Naoto to obtain her 3rd tier Persona, Yamato Sumeragi. Yamato Sumeragi learns Shield of Justice, a 160 SP unique skill that protects the party from all incoming damage for one turn. Naoto now also repels Light and Dark and nulls Fire, an upgrade from Yamato Takeru's resistances (Resist Fire, Null Light and Dark).

Persona 4 The Animation

Her role in the animation is similar to that of the game. In the anime, the bond between Naoto and Yu is represented by the Persona Atropos. She also teams up with Kanji to take out the first Reaper, but gets injured by it.

Persona 4 Arena

Naoto's story stands unique compared to the other members of the Investigation Team, since her story is more involved with the Shadow Operatives, rather than the Investigation Team itself. Her story mode begins a day before the hijacking, after she is contacted by a man in the Japanese Self Defense Force to help them investigate Mitsuru Kirijo, the inheritor of the Kirijo Group.

The Public Safety Officer tells Naoto about the Shadow Operatives.

When she asks why she is needed for this, the man reveals that this involves both Shadows and Personas, piquing Naoto's interest. It seems that they have been working with an almost invisible group still under the government's support called Shadow Operatives, mainly because of their job to exterminate Shadows (creatures this same man had seen in the past) and because they work in the shadows.

They suspect Mitsuru Kirijo to be doing this not only to exterminate Shadows and help people, but because there is some dark secret she is trying to hide, and they want to make it come to light. Naoto agrees, thinking it's for the best.

After meeting Mitsuru, she takes part in the escort team of a plane carrying something crucially important to the Kirijo Group, with a high security level, but the plane is hijacked and the cargo disappears. Naoto manages to put a transmitter in a suspicious van, and they track the signal to Inaba, where the cargo is supposed to be. Naoto is told by Mitsuru that she shouldn't get involved any further, and is asked to leave the case. Naoto understands Mitsuru is only thinking of the better good, but decides to keep on investigating.

The next day, she is contacted by the same man at the Self Defense Force, instructing her to meet with a person close to Mitsuru Kirijo called Detective Kurosawa. Later, she is also contacted by Chie, who asks if she's going to make it to their meeting.

Naoto and Kurosawa make their way towards Inaba.

Naoto meets with Kurosawa, and he gives her information about Mitsuru's group and their objectives. When Naoto asks him why he is working with Public Safety to dredge up the Kirijo Group's dirty laundry, Kurosawa replies that, no matter how much they investigate Mitsuru and her Shadow Operatives, they won't be able to find anything suspicious. He goes on to say that to understand this, everything she does has to be investigated in order to "eliminate those doubts." He claims it's better that "someone like" Naoto do the scrutinizing, rather than some official who could never understand.

He leads Naoto to where Mitsuru, Aigis and Akihiko Sanada meet, before entering a TV where they suspect the cargo is. Naoto decides to follow in order to keep on investigating, and to make sure everything is alright in that world.

She finds herself caught up in a strange tournament, which just so happens to contain the rest of the Investigation Team. As she comes to, she promptly runs into Yu who, after a fight, informs her of the events that transpired in Inaba during her absence. After General Teddie cajoles her into moving on by mentioning her "next opponent," she continues onward without Yu. Eventually she runs into Mitsuru and is able to defeat her. While she is still suspicious of Mitsuru, she gets a better understanding of who she is, and learns to trust her completely. Using Artemisia, Mitsuru helps Naoto get into contact with Rise, who reveals she is locked up in the announcement room after defeating Akihiko as well, Naoto makes her way there.

As she breaks the door open, she finds Labrys after she has defeated Teddie with General Teddie in the room. Naoto correctly states that the general is actually Shadow Labrys and soon Labrys herself attacks Naoto. Even after subduing Labrys, she continues to deny her Shadow, which only makes Shadow Labrys become stronger. After defeating Labrys' Shadow, she and Teddie confront Labrys they explain that just as Labrys cannot escape the reality that she is an android, Naoto cannot be a man and Teddie cannot become a human. But because of this, they can rely on their friends who will accept them no matter who they are. This helps Labrys accept her Shadow, and allow it to become her Persona, Ariadne.

Soon, Yu and the others begin to show up, and are surprised to see Naoto, and Mitsuru's group. Mitsuru covers up the fact Naoto helped guide Mitsuru through the TV World as part of her job. But when Labrys is taken over, Naoto realizes that the true culprit is someone different, and confirms it when she faces off against her own "shadow," which she correctly guesses should not happen, seeing as how she just used her Persona, thus revealing it to be the culprit.

After discovering the true mastermind, they decide to retire for the day. As the Investigation Team say their goodbyes to Labrys and the Shadow Operatives, whom the latter had just joined, Mitsuru pulls Naoto aside to give her blessings to the team. Although Naoto didn't immediately understand it, she confirms her suspicions when Yu and Yosuke officially reform the Investigation Team during their party celebrating Yu's return.

Naoto types up a report of her findings.

Later, she gives the report that Mitsuru and her Shadow Operatives group should not be considered a threat to public safety, and that Mitsuru only means to amend for her family's sins, though Mitsuru warns her that not everyone in the current Kirijo Group shares her desire. But Naoto realizes that though Mitsuru is not at all a malevolent individual, the Kirijo Group still hides many secrets that even Mitsuru does not know, and that this is only the beginning.

Persona 4 Arena Ultimax

The next night, Naoto begins to research the Kirijo Group's connection to the Dark Hour and late scientist Shuji Ikutsuki, starting from the incidents at the group's owned Ergonomics Laboratory. In the middle of her research, Naoto gets an emergency call from Labrys saying Mitsuru, Aigis, Akihiko and Fuuka suddenly went missing while returning to Inaba upon finding an abnormal Shadow. As Naoto tries to find the location of Labrys' chopper, the P-1 Climax suddenly begins in the real Inaba, bringing about the second coming of the Dark Hour. Naoto goes out and sees the strange tower in the center of Yasogami High School. After Naoto defeats the fake Chie, she is attacked by a red-haired young man named Sho Minazuki, who refers to himself as "Minazuki." Before Naoto is killed by Minazuki, she is saved by the arrival of Labrys, Yukari Takeba, Ken Amada and Koromaru, warning them of his involvement with the disappearance of Mitsuru’s team and P1-Climax. Once Minazuki leaves and calls forth the fake Naoto, whom Labrys defeats, Naoto uncovers information she received from her fake Shadow about Minazuki and General Teddie’s plan to collect the Persona fragments from P1-Climax fighters.

Play Style

Naoto is best described as a morphing character who is mostly played at medium-to-long range, but can shift to close range combat. As a payoff, Naoto has low health and has a hard time fending off against fierce opponents. Unlike her fellow keep away characters, her strengths lie in the ability to shift her line of fire swiftly as well as being able to utilize traps, along with her original Shield of Justice (Seigi no Tate) Reversal Action being a secondary counter. Naoto also packs lots of creativity in her combos when her setups are properly used, such as her traps being placed in specific locations and through one of her supers, is the only character capable of causing mute to an opponent.

Unique to Naoto, her opponent is given a special Fate meter which she can deplete using several attacks. When it is depleted to zero (0), she has access to both Hamaon's and Mudoon's ability to instantly kill the enemy and, unlike most instant kills, is able to execute them in any round. Despite not being able to land possible OHKO's with her Hamaon and Mudoon, the former can be great for pressure as Naoto can conceal her mix-ups inside the light, and the latter can be used to extend combos quite well. This overall, along with Naoto having some meter to spare, gives her some of the highest damage potentials in the game. Some of her moves such as her jumping B and C can be used for long ranged pokes. In addition, her D moves cloak her Persona and when used again, her Persona appears and attacks from that spot and can even attack behind her opponent. Though a special glitch, Naoto is also able to perform a loop with her Niren Kiba (Double Fangs) B in the corner by breaking through Same Move Proration by performing 10 different moves on the opponent in one combo.

Her Aim/Sogeki Kamae (Sniping Stance) can enable her to fire her gun or cancel the stance right away. And the stance can also be automatically entered through her Double Fangs. Of course, in regards to her shooting, Naoto can fire her gun forward (Shoumen/Frontage), downward (Choudan/Springing Bullet) or upward (Taikuu/Anti-Air). The downward version is a unique case where it bounces off the ground to an upward angle, meaning can hit OTG and thus, finish Naoto's OTG combos off an A version Double Fangs most of the time, or can be used as an anti-air as well as a low attack mixup up close. All bullets can be super cancelled as well. For SMP loops, her final gunshot counts as a separate move from the rest of the initial ones, and removes a Fate Counter.

Firing bullets after firing all five of them will cause Naoto to attempt to fire her gun as usual, only clicking will be heard and no projectiles will appear. From there, Naoto is forced to cancel the stance and enter it again from there to fire bullets again rise and repeat while the Aim stance can be canceled with a normal D or 214A command, but the B version makes Naoto perform a cartwheel backward instead with plenty invincibility before she recovers from it, while the SB version makes her perform an invincible roll forward to enter the stance which can switch sides with opponents both the B and SB versions if done during the stance can allow Naoto to automatically reload her bullets at any time without canceling her stance outright well while entering it again, enabling for some tricky gun defense.

A drawback of hers in competitive play as well, is that should one be too focused on her keep away, there's a chance she'll often have more Negative Warnings and Negative Penalties than most characters, severely crippling her — adding that with her already low health and some bad direct defensive options. What's more, despite her flexible playstyle, her zoning and offense can be overshadowed by others like Teddie for the former and Kanji for the latter. Thus, Naoto is often high risk but very high reward for a unique playstyle that's difficult to grip.

In Arena Ultimax, Naoto has not changed much in terms of her playstyle, though her approach on her auto-attack normals has, along with all the other characters. Naoto eventually gains a new move, the Blight (Venom Zapper in JPN), which is her new anti-air attack (and also counts as a Persona-based move), as well as a new followup to her Shield of Justice called Safety (named after the mechanic used on firearms), where she can backdash out of her R-Action. She can also now perform Double Fangs in the air, allowing her to finish her air combos with better follow up scenarios. Another new touch is that Naoto's gun can now "jam," which after firing all her bullets causes her new gun icon to show a gauge in the place of her bullet amount (which is 5 like the original game) which quickly refills during its cooldown period, and her bullets cannot be reloaded anymore via performing a B or SB version Aim stance while it's active, preventing her from spamming too much of her gunshots freely (thus Naoto after using up her rounds must reload via stance break and use her bullets more wisely).

On another note, Naoto's close range game has somewhat improved, especially with her new Blight move and a few other changes. Also regarding her gun attacks, Naoto can now use 6D to fire an exploding short-range burst that removes a Fate Counter (which does not use up any ammo but must still be used while there is any amount of ammo remaining), as well as the fact that her Raid now can only fire three bullets per time the super is executed. Her Anti-Shadow Rifles A version can now allow for an immediate B version follow up via an SB Super.

Naoto's theme/leitmotif is named "Seeker of Truth," and is named after the other name for the Investigation Team. The OST disc version features notably altered instrumentals in comparison to the other leitmotifs however, making use of extra alternated guitar chords and techno sounds.

Score Attack

Naoto is the second character faced in Score Attack. More moves in Naoto's arsenal now remove Fate Counters, and her SP Gain is increased.

Persona x Detective Naoto

Naoto is the main character in this spin-off novel. However, whether or not this novel is canon is unknown, and its story may have been retconned, but this needs confirmation.

The novel is chronologically set after the bulk of Persona 4 entries, where Naoto is in her final year of high school which would roughly set it in late 2012 or sometime in 2013. She is still in frequent contact with her old friends and even drops everything to come to Rise's aid when asked.

In the novel, Naoto is asked by an old detective friend, Touko Aoi, to help investigate the disappearance of two Yagakoro students. On her first day on the case, she encounters Sousei Kurogami who awakens her new Persona ability Amatsu Mikaboshi, which leads to them being partnered together despite their distinctly different personalities. To help in her investigation, she transfers into the school of the two students who had gone missing and soon discovers the Midnight Site and that the circumstances surrounding the disappearance of the two students might be more complicated than she originally thought.

While she does still dress and speak as a boy in this novel, she does not take extreme measures to hide her gender. She wears a swimsuit to help Rise and during the investigation even briefly dons a female sailor uniform to help obscure her identity.

Persona 5

Naoto is referenced by name if the protagonist watches television on 4/29, the program will directly reference her as the first Detective Prince. Goro Akechi is heralded as the second coming of the Detective Prince.

Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth

Naoto and her team encounter SEES when they venture into an alternate reality of Yasogami High School. To escape the world, both groups decide to work together.

While venturing through the Group Date Cafe, Akihiko Sanada and Junpei Iori are shocked to learn that Naoto is female as she is wearing a boy's uniform.

Persona Q2: New Cinema Labyrinth

Naoto is one of the brains of the group alongside Mitsuru and Akechi. As she is the first Detective Prince, she gets along with Akechi well, which is difficult for other people to do due to his distant and cold personality. She learns a unison attack with Akechi after teaming up with him to solve a mystery.

Man-Made Patterns

Man-made patterns, on the other hand, tend to strive for perfection. A checkerboard is easily recognizable as a series of contrasting squares drawn with straight lines. If a line is out of place or one square is red rather than black or white, this challenges our perception of that well-known pattern.

Humans also attempt to replicate nature within man-made patterns. Floral patterns are a perfect example because we are taking a natural object and turning it into a repeating pattern with some variation. The flowers and vines do not have to be replicated exactly. The emphasis comes from the general repetition and placement of the elements within the overall design.

Correct date of Roger Fenton&rsquos 'Council of War' photograph

One of Roger Fenton’s (right) more popular images from the Crimean War is entitled Council of War held at Lord Raglan’s Head Quarters the Morning of the successful Attack on the Mamelon, Portraits of Lord Raglan, Maréchal Pélissier, and Omar Pacha (below). It was originally shown under this title at an exhibition of Fenton’s Crimean pictures held in Pall Mall in London in November1855 according to the official catalogue. In the image, Lord Raglan, Omar Pacha, and Aimable Pélissier, the Commanders-in-Chief of the British, Turkish and French forces respectively, sit around a small table looking at a map seemingly discussing military operations. Omar Pacha and Pélissier are in full military uniform while Raglan wears a sun hat and civilian clothes. The title of the photograph suggests that they were adding the final touches to an attack that was to take place on Russian positions later that day.

The attack on the Russian-held White Works and Mamelon by the French and a position known as the Quarries by the British took place late in the afternoon of 7 June 1855. The image’s title indicates that Council of War was taken that morning. However, this was not the case. Fenton in his letters home wrote that on 5 June 1855 he had breakfast with Pélissier and arranged to take his likeness at the British army headquarters early the next morning. Fenton also reported that he intended to ask Omar Pasha to be there as well so that he could also take his portrait. This arrangement was confirmed by William Romaine, who was the Deputy Judge Advocate with the British army in the Crimea. He wrote in his journal on 6 June 1855 that Pélissier had arrived at British headquarters at 6.00 h that day with ‘a box full of finery’ in order to have his portrait taken by Fenton. He also reported that Pélissier, Omar Pasha and Raglan came out of the headquarters’ building at 10.00 h where a small table with a map had been placed and had their portraits taken in a group. Fenton took other pictures of Pélissier and Omar Pacha posing in their ‘finery’ at British headquarters on the same day.

The above information provides very strong evidence that Council of War was taken on the morning of 6 June 1855 and not 7 June 1855. It also reveals that Fenton arranged for Omar Pacha and Pélissier to be at British headquarters on the morning of 6 June 1855 for formal portraits and this was the main reason for their visit and not to discuss pending operations. Indeed, individual portraits of the two wearing the same ‘finery’ as in Council of War exist and these were presumably taken at the time.

The actual detailed planning session for the attack on the Mamelon, the Quarries and other Russian positions on 7 June 1855 is reported to have taken place on 4 June 1855 with seventeen French and British officers, many who were artillery and engineering experts, participating. Fenton must have realised on the morning of 6 June 1855 that he had a unique photo opportunity with all three Allied leaders at the same place at the same time. Why then was the wrong information on the day of the photograph and an impression created that those photographed were in the process of planning the forthcoming assault given in the picture’s title? One can only speculate that it was meant to heighten public interest so as to promote sales of the image at the London exhibition.

A Royal Collection Trust’s press release for its recent Roger Fenton exhibition read: -

The Council of War (June 1855) shows the three commanders of the allied armies planning their successful assault on the Russian fortifications at Mamelon on the morning of the attack. The photograph of Lord Raglan, Maréchal Pélissier and Omar Pasha became one of Fenton's best-known portraits …………..In August 1855, Queen Victoria wrote in her journal that she had viewed some of Fenton's work, commenting that the portrait was 'one, most interesting, of poor Lord Raglan, Pélissier & Omar Pacha, sitting together on the morning, on which the Quarries were taken’.

Victoria may not have been amused had she known at the time that she had been misinformed about the date!

This contribution to the blog was written because the facts concerning Council of War should be known by all Crimean War photo-historians. More information for those who are interested can be found in the article: Jones, D.R. (2017) The Council of War. The War Correspondent 35 (2), 34-36.

Finally, by an amazing coincidence, today is the 164 th anniversary of Council of War as well as the 75 th anniversary of D-Day!

Regency Illustrations

This file contains links to some illustrations from the "extended Regency" period (see notes on chronology and periodization) which are not primarily illustrations of women's fashions. Click on the thumbnails to view the full-size images. Links labelled "[Large]" or "[Huge]" lead to images which may take longer to download, due to relatively large file sizes (approaching or exceeding 200 kilobytes).

  • Portraits of men, and illustrations and caricatures of men's fashions
  • General (unclassified) non-caricature illustrations
  • Architecture and interior decor illustrations
  • Sporting, transportation, and outdoors games and pastimes scenes
  • Custom playing-card illustrations
  • General family portraits
  • Ingres' family portraits
  • General images of dancing
  • Caricatures or strongly satirical drawings
    • Dance caricatures
    • "Fast" parlour games from Le Bon Genre , Paris
    • General (unclassified) caricatures
    • Naval/military caricatures
    • Political caricatures
    • Post-Regency (1820's and early 1830's) Caricatures and satirical drawings
    • Pavel Petrovich Svinin watercolors (now attributed to John Lewis Krimmel)
    • John Lewis Krimmel

    Portraits of men, and illustrations and specific caricatures of men's fashions

    Here are two pieces painted by Thomas Churchyard of Woodbridge (who was an artist in his own right):

    For portraits of women, see the Regency women's clothing page.

    Fashion illustrations:

    "Full and half-dress for April", fashion plate ca. 1809:
    The male "Full Dress" (i.e. formal eveningwear with knee-breeches and stockings) is on the left, and "Half-Dress" (i.e. less formal attire with boots and long trousers) in the center.

    Male fashion caricatures:

    "Les Invisibles", an 1810 caricature of how various fashions (including women's bonnets, along with male hats and high collars) seemed to hide the face ("Invisible" is the French word for a poke bonnet):
    [Large Image]
    (This scan courtesy Bob Whitworth of PrintsGeorge.Com.)

    "Le Goût du Jour", late 1790's fashion satire:
    The little men cavorting on the swing are a satire of a then-familiar visual cliché (the similarly cavorting cupids in various pseudo-classical paintings of the period).

    For an 1824 satire of immediately post-Regency dandyism, prefiguring certain Victorian trends, see the 1824 smoking and moustaches caricature below.

    Miscellaneous (unclassified) images

    (Some of these images may be slightly humorous, but are not exaggerated caricatures.)

    Making him useful (my caption for this slightly humorous drawing-room picture of a young lady and a soldier):
    (No information was given in the source I scanned this in from, so I don't know whether the picture is contemporary Regency/Empire, or from the later 19th century nor whether the accompanying caption, "Her Aide-de-camp", is original.)

    "Passer Payez", a painting by Louis-Leopold Boilly, ca. 1803:
    At that time, most of the streets of Paris were not in all that great a shape, and many of them would become muddy morasses after a good rain, so that some entreprenurial lower-class Parisians would provide themselves with a long plank that had wheels affixed to one end, and would pick up the unwheeled end and roll the plank along until they found a likely intersection or street-crossing, where they would lay the plank across the mud, and charge a small fee to people (presumably mainly from the middle and upper classes, especially women) who were willing to pay to avoid having to tramp through the mud of the street. The painting shows a family crossing the street over one of these plank bridges the proprietor of the plank is at left, stretching out his arm for payment, and one of the wheels attached to the end of the plank can be seen in outline near the bottom of the painting towards the left. [Semi-mediocre scan.]
    This painting is an early source for the wearing of "drawers" (underpants with legs) by women -- the woman who is probably the mother of the family (though she's only holding a dog) has lifted up her skirts far enough so that you can see the bottom of one leg of a pair of drawers (which are a little longer than usual, since they actually cover the knee instead of ending a little above the knee).

    The character of Rosara in "The grand melodrama of The Broken Sword (by W. Domind), as performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden." -- (published November 4th 1816):
    (This play apparently ended up giving the phrase "old chestnut" to the English language.)

    Trade card advertising Sloan House, a boarding school for young ladies, 1797:
    Top: Beehive, symbolizing industry To left of Beehive: Books, "English Grammar, French Grammar, Italian Grammar" To right of beehive: Book, "Bon Ton" To Left of Oval: Young lady sketching head of classical statue, Young lady looking through telescope with "Ferguson on Astronomy" open in front of her. To right of Oval: Pallas Athene standing by a harpsichord, and holding by the hand a young girl in 1790's attire. Below Oval: Scientific instruments, another music book Text in Oval: "Sloane House. Terms of Mrs. Chassaing's French Boarding School, Sloane Street, Chelsea. Board and Education including French grammatically by Mr. Chassaing At 30 guineas per Annum. Day Boarders 15 Guineas per Annum. Music, Dancing, Writing & Accounts, Geography with the use of the Globes at One Guinea per Quarter and a Guinea entrance each. Italian 2 Guineas per Quarter and One Guinea entrance. Text Below: "Every Lady has a separate bed."

    "Trade card" of Miss Dietrichsen, music teacher (ca. 1798), showing two young ladies playing the harp and piano:
    Caption: "On Moderate Terms, The Harp, Piano Forte & Singing, Taught by Miss Dietrichsen, 12, Rathbone Place, Oxford Street. White, Engraver, 14 Brownlow Street, Holborn."

    (Images without thumbnails:)

    Architecture and interior decor illustrations

    A contrast between "Grecian" vs. "Gothic" styles of landscape and architecture a Feb. 1st 1816 plate accompanying Humphry Repton's Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (it might be just possible that Marianne Dashwood of Sense and Sensibility would prefer one of these to the other!):
    /> [Large Image]
    /> [Medium-size scan]

    An example of what Repton can do on the inside of the house (as well as the garden) for his five-guinea-a-day retainer: The "Modern Living Room" contrasted with the "Ancient Cedar Parlour", from Humphry Reptons's Fragments of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1816):
    Here's what Repton says about the contrast in his book: Two sketches are introduced, to shew the contrast betwixt the ancient cedar parlour and the modern living room: but as no drawing can describe those comforts enjoyed in the latter, or the silent gloom of the former, perhaps the annexed lines may be allowed to come in aid of the attempt to delineate both. A MODERN LIVING-ROOM. No more the Cedar Parlour's formal gloom
    With dulness chills, 'tis now the Living Room
    Where Guests, to whim, or taste, or fancy true,
    Scatter'd in groups, their different plans pursue.
    Here Politicians eagerly relate
    The last day's news, or the last night's debate,
    And there a Lover's conquer'd by Check-mate.
    Here books of poetry and books of prints
    Furnish aspiring Artists with new hints
    Flow'rs, landscapes, figures, cram'd in one portfolio,
    There blend discordant tints to form an olio.
    While discords twanging from the half-tun'd harp,
    Make dulness cheerful, changing flat to sharp.
    Here, 'midst exotic plants, the curious maid
    Of Greek and Latin seems no more afraid.
    There lounging Beaux and Belles enjoy their folly,
    Nor less enjoying learned melancholy.
    Silent midst crowds the Doctor here looks big,
    Wrap'd in his own importance and his wig.

    Another view of Ackermann's enterprise, "Ackermann's Repository of Arts, 101 Strand", an illustration by Pugin and Rowlandson to the magazine Ackermann's Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce , January 1809
    [Large Image.]
    Rudolph Ackermann was a publisher, print-seller, and "manufacturer of fancy articles" (e.g. screens, card racks, flower stands). Some of the fashion plates on the Regency women's fashion page are taken from Ackermann's magazine.

    "Night Bason Stand" from The Cabinet Dictionary by Thomas Sheraton (1803):
    This bedside appliance fits in the corner of a room, and has a basin on top that you can wash your hands and face in (a jug of water would be placed on top of it for that purpose), and on the bottom has a concealed swing-out chamber-pot stand (with hinged foot for stability). Since the main sanitary facilities would have been on the ground floor, while bedrooms were usually upstairs, this would allow someone to take care of lesser necessities during the night without having to go all the way downstairs (and perhaps outside), to do so. (Note that this piece is an example of a professional cabinetmaker showing what he's capable of, and something this fancy wouldn't necessarily have been found in an average room of an average middle class house.)

    Sporting, transportation, and outdoors games and pastimes scenes

    An illustration of a balloon journey, from the Journal des Dames et des Modes , 1797-1798 (the lady seems none too warmly attired for the occasion):
    [Large File]
    The writing on the falling scraps of paper reads: "Rapport sur le premier voyage aërien du Citoyen Garnerin avec la Citoyenne Henri" (Andre-Jacques Garnerin was one of the most famous balloonists of the time).

    Henry Angelo's Fencing Academy (watercolor by Rowlandson, 1787):
    The famous fencer the Chevalier St. George's portrait, foils, and fencing shoes are displayed on the right wall. (The building burned down June 17th, 1789)

    Skating couple ca. 1800 -- the sly gentleman knows that under cover of teaching her to ice-skate, he can hold her and clasp her hand without being thought improper or forward. (Plate re-colored when printed in Fischel and Boehn's Modes and Manners of the Nineteenth Century , 1909.)
    Her skates are directly strapped on to the characteristic women's shoes of the period that she's wearing (the kind of ballet-slipper-looking things, with leather soles appropriate for light-duty outdoor use) -- an arrangement which does not look like it would give much control or warmth.

    Another ice-skating scene, "January", print from an early 1820's series of prints of the months:
    Do you think it might be just barely possible that one of the gentlemen is showing off?

    Print of the 1822 meeting of the "Royal British Bowmen" archery club (1823 print engraved after J. Townshend):
    [Large Image]
    Caption: "This Plate representing the Meeting of the Royal British Bowmen on the Grounds of Erthy, Denbighshire, the Seat of Simon Yorke Esq. on Sept r . 13 th . 1822, is respectfully dedicated to that Society by ONE of its MEMBERS"
    Notice that both men and women members of the society have uniforms (the women's uniform was a green dress with yellow at the shoulder puffs and yellow triangles at the bottom hem). In the 1806 book Microcosm (from which William Henry Pyne's engravings of rural and working-class life on this page below have been taken), a number of these archery clubs are mentioned, along with a brief capsule history of both "working" and "hobby" archery.
    For a less documentary picture of lady archers, go to the women's Regency fashion page.

    Custom playing card illustrations

    General family portraits

    Ingres' family portraits

    Sketch of the family of Lucien Bonaparte (1815):
    [Mediocre-quality image]
    Notice the seated girl's pantalettes.

    To see some of Ingres' portraits of women, go to the portrait section of the women's fashion illustrations page, and to see his portrait of Lord Grantham, see above on this page.

    General images of dancing

    Waltzing scene from La Belle Assemblée , February 1, 1817:
    (In 1817, the conical -- but not bell-shaped -- skirts shown here were on the cutting edge of the most recent fashions.)

    English print of ca. 1820 showing dancers executing the "three forward and back" section of the pastourelle figure of a quadrille:
    (Dresses resembling those shown here -- very full-skirted but still very high-waisted -- were apparently worn by some elite followers of all the latest changing high fashions during a fairly brief period ca. 1819-1820, but never really became the default style of the general body of "genteel" women, at least in this extreme form. Ironically, these gowns have some resemblance to the hoop-skirted "court dress" -- worn at formal royal occasions -- which was abolished at nearly the same time, in 1820, on the grounds of being universally considered an archaic and hideous relic.)

    Caricatures or strongly satirical drawings

    (Other than specific fashion caricatures see above for male fashion caricatures, and the the Regency women's fashions page for female fashion caricatures.)

    Dance caricatures

    Here's a series of adaptations of a caricature of the Walz:

    "La Walse", caricature from Le Bon Genre , Paris, 1801 (probably the original caricature at this time the Waltz was unknown in England, and in Germany and France still had not entirely shed its connotations of being a German peasant dance):
    On the left: a raffish couple
    On the right: German "egghead", and a lady with her feet none too firmly planted

    "La Walse" 1810 adaptation by Gillray of the above French caricature:
    (At this time the Waltz was very new in England, and considered rather scandalous, because of the way the gentleman's arm encircles the lady's waist as part of the dance.)
    Notice how the right couple has been altered by Gillray

    Engraved illustration for the 3rd. edition of Washington Irving's Salmagundi (1820) by Alexander Anderson
    (Further adaptation of the right couple in the above -- probably based on Gillray's version -- in which there is less personal caricature of the man, though the dance itself is still rather strongly caricatured.)

    "La Sauteuse" (different caricature from the above three), from Le Bon Genre , Paris, 1806:
    (Intended to caricature the walz as having an abandoned nature, compared to the more decorous dances which had previously prevailed in genteel circles.)

    (The preceding two caricatures make sly insinuations by showing a vagrant fold of the woman's skirts going between the man's legs. )

    "Longitude and Latitude of St. Petersburgh", caricature of Countess Lieven waltzing at Almack's, by George Cruikshank, May 13th 1813:
    (smaller contrasty scan)
    (larger less contrasty scan)

    Some dance caricatures were actually not about walzing. The Quadrille was also a new dance in England in the 1810's:

    "Dos à Dos -- Accidents in Quadrille Dancing", caricature print engraved by George Cruikshank, 1817 ("Other way, Mr. Collins!"):
    By an old caricaturist's trick, the women's skirts are shown somewhat shorter than they would have been in reality.

    "Bobbin' about to the Fiddle -- a Familly Rehersal of Quadrille Dancing, or Polishing for a trip to Margate", a caricature of a "cit" (bourgeois) family preparing for their vacation, by Charles Williams, May 1817:
    [Large Image]
    The paterfamilias is saying to the French dancing master: "I say, Mounseer Caper! don't I come it prime? Ecod, I shall cut a Figor!!" [i.e. "figure"], and one of the daughters says "Law, Pa, that's just as when you was drilling for the Whitechaple Volunteers -- only look how Ma and I & sister Clementina does it!!", while the dancing master says "Vere vell, Sar, ver vell, you vil danse a merveille vere soon!"

    "Fast" parlour games from Le Bon Genre , Paris

    Semi-satirical illustrations, some or all of which were published in Le Bon Genre , Paris, during approximately the first decade and a half of the nineteenth century not to be taken entirely seriously.

    A game of blind man's buff -- it looks like the gentleman is, ahem, taking advantage of the situation. The French caption is "Colin Maillard assis -- MONSIEUR ON NE TÂTE PAS" (Translation: "Seated blindman's-buff -- Sir, no groping!")
    (Color scan courtesy Bob Whitworth of PrintsGeorge.Com.)
    (Slightly larger black-and-white scan.)
    (For a more respectable single-sex version of blind man's buff, also published in Le Bon Genre , see the Regency women's fashions page.)

    Another Regency parlour game, of uncertain nature but faintly scandalous appearance (by Schenker, from Le Bon Genre ?). French Caption: "Le Baiser à la Capucine".
    (Color scan courtesy Bob Whitworth of PrintsGeorge.Com.)
    (Larger black-and-white scan.)
    (Even larger, but blurrier, black-and-white scan.)

    Some info on this publication is available on Cathy's Le Bon Genre page.

    General (unclassified) caricatures

    "The inconveniences of a crowded drawing room", famous caricature by George Cruikshank, May 6th 1818
    Note the moustache of the man on the right, which at the time had connotations of continental or military dandyism.
    A huge scan of "The inconveniences of a crowded drawing room" Cruikshank caricature (showing additional detail) is also available.

    "A Peep at the Gas-lights in Pall Mall", caricature of reactions to installation of the new invention of gas-lighting on Pall-Mall, London, by Rowlandson, 1809 (mediocre-quality image):
    [Large Image]
    Well-informed gentleman: "The Coals being steam'd produces tar or paint for the outside of Houses -- the Smoke passing thro' water is deprived of substance and burns as you see." Irishman: "Arragh honey, if this man bring fire thro water we shall soon have the Thames and the Liffey burnt down -- and all the pretty little herrings and whales burnt to cinders." Rustic bumpkin: "Wauns, what a main pretty light it be: we have nothing like it in our Country." Quaker: "Aye, Friend, but it is all Vanity: what is this to the Inward Light?" Shady Female: "If this light is not put a stop to -- we must give up our business. We may as well shut up shop." Shady Male: "True, my dear: not a dark corner to be got for love or money."

    "An Elegant Establishment for Young Ladies", by Edward Francis Burney, a fantastic farrago which depicts a multitude of outlandish goings-on imagined to occur at a trendy lady's "seminary":
    [Mediocre scan.]
    Proceding roughly clockwise from the upper right, some of the notable activities portrayed in this wildly exaggerated over-the-top caricature of a girls' boarding school are: Through the window can be seen a young lady eloping with a young man (who is assisting her as she is jumping onto the top of a carriage he has brought around). Above the door is the inscription "Elegant Establishment for Young Ladies", and over the gate is "Seminary". In front of the window is another young lady rehearsing the role of a tragedy-heroine (with a dagger stuck in her girdle). At lower center is a dancing lesson, with the man seeming to be a little more intimate with the young lady than what the necessities of teaching would require. In the center (top and bottom) and at the lower left, are various contrivances to ensure correct posture (girls lying on their backs on the hardwood floor, the girl being hoisted by her chin at bottom left the girl seen in silhouette holding a backboard behind her shoulders, and the girl working out with dumbbells -- the girl being hoisted by her chin is also holding dumbbells). Towards the left of center, it appears that an Indian is teaching some kind of oriental dance with tambourine (something which I strongly doubt was featured on the curriculum of most Regency ladies' boarding schools), and there is also a Eastern-European-looking man doing something with a girl who is probably supposed to be wearing a kind of "Oriental" costume, but whose clothes actually look more like those that 10-year old girls wore during the Regency (skirts shorter than adult length, with pantalettes).
    Edward Francis Burney also did an elaborate caricature depicting the newfangled waltz as the lascivious highway to hell his caricatures seemingly have to be reproduced on a large scale (which they rarely are in modern books) to have their full effect.

    A satirical engraving of the quaint English custom of "wife-selling", which wasn't quite what it sounds like, but was more a ritual among the non-genteel classes (who couldn't possibly obtain a full parliamentary divorce, allowing remarriage, according to the pre-1857 laws), to publicly proclaim a dissolution of marriage (though not one that was really recognized by the authorities of Church and State). 1820 English caricature (even though the sign says "Marché de Bêtes à Cornes")
    Notice how the artist has arranged things so that the cattle's horns are strategically placed in line-of-sight behind the husband's head.
    The following notice appeared in an 1815 newspaper:
    "On Friday last [September 15th 1815] the common bell-man gave notice in Staines Market that the wife of ---- Issey was then at the King's Head Inn to be sold, with the consent of her husband, to any person inclined to buy her. There was a very numerous attendance to witness this singular sale, notwithstanding which only three shillings and fourpence were offered for the lot, no one choosing to contend with the bidder, for the fair object, whose merits could only be appreciated by those who knew them. This the purchaser could boast, from a long and intimate acquaintance. This degrading custom seems to be generally received by the lower classes, as of equal obligation with the most serious legal forms."
    (See a discussion of the pre-1857 legalities of marriage.)

    "The celebration [fête] of the Order of Cuckoldry before the throne of her majesty, Infidelity", satirical colored French print, ca. 1815. (A parody of knightly orders such as the English order of the Garter, which traditionally held annual celebrations on the day of the patron-Saint of the order.)
    The cupid at the bottom front is writing this on the scroll: "Liste de M srs les Membres Composant la g de . famille de Vénérables Cocus, Cornards, Cornettes, et Cornillons de tous les Pais [pays]. &c." Note the gentlemen from non-Western-European nations at the right of the picture, and the lady in the pink dress who is firmly calling her husband's attention to the horns on her own head.

    "Love-à-la-mode, or Two dear friends", early 19th-century caricature by Gillray, reportedly depicting a scandalous rumour told about Emma, Lady Hamilton (Nelson's mistress), and Queen Maria Carolina of Naples (presumably the the lady on the left, who seems to be wearing some kind of coronet or crown beneath the feathers in her headdress). Two men spy out the situation in some distate, from behind some bushes.
    [Large Image]
    Text of dialogue in image:
    One lady to the other: "Little does he imagine that he has a female rival" Nautical gentleman (Nelson?): "What is to be done to put a stop to this disgraceful Business?" Other gentleman: "Take her from W . "

    "Modern Antiques" by Rowlandson, 1806 (a satire on the craze for imitations of things ancient-Egyptian):
    In the Morning Chronicle in 1805, a lady complained that ``since this accursed Egyptian style came into fashion. my eldest boy rides on a sphinx instead of a rocking-horse, my youngest has a papboat in the shape of a crocodile, and my husband has built a watercloset in the shape of a pyramid, and has his shirts marked with a lotus.''

    The following 1843 poem, in much the same spirit as the Gillray caricature, summarizes the difference between the lifestyles of the "genteel" vs. the tenant-farmer classes, and predicts that the latter will come to an impecunious end if they imitate those of the former: Old Style Man, to the plough Wife, to the cow Girl, to the yarn Boy, to the barn And your rent will be netted. New Style Man, Tally Ho [i.e. hunting] Miss, piano Wife, silk and satin Boy, Greek and Latin And you'll all be Gazetted. [i.e. notice of bankruptcy will be published in official Gazette]

    Caricature by (George or Robert?) Cruikshank, 1816 (probably an allusion to some specific event or gossip):
    THE BERKELEY SLIP, or a Lesson for Spinsters
    "Not one false Slip entirely damns her Fame."
    Trust not to Man, however Debonair,
    Nor trust your bottoms on a slippery Chair.
    (Dialogue in image here)

    For pictures which are primarily satires of women's fashions see the caricatures section of the Regency women's fashions page.

    Naval/military caricatures

    Caricatures which involve soldiers or sailors in some way (even though they may not be the main target of the satire).

    "An Interesting scene, on board an East-Indiaman, showing the Effects of a heavy Lurch, after dinner", print by George Cruikshank, Nov. 9th 1818, after a drawing by Captain Frederick Marryat (Large JPEG image):
    The sailor on the right is saying "My precious eyes, Tom. here's a smash!! !! -- hold on, my hearties!! hang on by y'r eyelids"

    A print that will make you wish you lived in the Regency, when things were decorous and elegant!
    "A Milling Match Between Decks", by W. Elmes, July 13th 1812. (A caricature satirizing situations which arose in some navy ships when officers appeased the seamen by turning a blind eye to indulgences below decks -- especially allowing women who were not the sailors' wives to freely come on board when a ship was in port):
    [Large Image]
    The devotee of terpsichore on the left is saying "I love a bit of hop -- Life is ne'er the worse for it when in my way do drop a Fiddle -- that's your sort." and the pugilistic spectator on the right is saying "Now Jack -- Brail up his peepers or Mungo will tip you yankey-doodle-doo." ("Hop" = "dance", "brail" nautical for "to haul up a sail", "peepers" = "eyes". The name "Mungo" is probably at least as much in honor of Scottish explorer Mungo Park as it is authentically African.)
    Here's a watercolor which shows a more respectable version of visits by women to ships in port: "The Sailor's Sweetheart" by Isaac Cruickshank (probably done in the 1790's).

    "The Merry Ship's Crew, or Nautical Philosophers" a satirical caricature on severe naval discipline, from the late 1810's, signed by "Williams":
    [Mediocre-quality scan]
    Captain: "Well, Mate! Just come on shore? How did you leave the ship's crew?" Mate: "Why Captain, I left them all to a man the merriest fellows in the world -- I flogged seventeen of them as your Honor commanded, and they are happy it is over and the rest are happy because they have escaped."
    "For all the happiness mankind can gain,
    "Is not in pleasure, but in rest from pain." -- Dryden

    "Stretchit", a slightly naughty English caricature of the early 19th century, commenting on a few young females who were daring enough to ride astride, rather than sidesaddle (gasp!):
    [Large File]
    (Part of the intended humor is suposed to come from the confrontation between the genteel, though "fast" young lady and the salty British tar.)
    (Dialogue in image here)
    For an image of a woman riding sidesaddle, as was normal, see the Regency women's clothing illustrations page.

    A hobby horse built for four (English caricature, ca. 1817):
    Text in image:
    1st woman: "Vy, Poll, this beats the Delly!!" ["delly"="dilly", a shortening of "Diligence", which is an older and foreign word for "stagecoach"]
    "Vy, Poll, it's capsized" [Using the nautical word "capsize" instead of normal "overturn"] 2nd woman: "And we have capsized a Dandy" 1st sailor: "D--n it Jack, this is rare sailing without a wind" 2nd sailor: "A very pretty invention, Tom!"
    "D--n it we shall run down the Dandy!" Dandy: "Curse you, you tarpauling!" ["tarpaulin"="sailor"]
    "Wy don't you mind how you steer?"

    • Rustic Couple: Wife: "I have made good the Accident of last night, -- and now John, though thee dost not look very like a Soldier, there shall not be a man in the Regiment with a better Ramrod."
    • Old Couple: Husband: "I can't conceive what is the matter with my Old Gun. I can't do any thing with it." Wife: "It's owing to the Cock, my Dear it has been so a long time!!"
    • Third Couple: Man: "Is not that very Gentlemanly and upright." Young Lady: "Yes, and I hope you will always continue so. I doat upon everything upright."
    • Fourth Couple: Man: "Oh -- had you but seen me Fire last night I astonish'd every Lady on the ground. I don't think I wink'd once during the whole evening." Woman: "I am happy to hear you improve in any thing -- I had almost given you up, I assure you.
    • Fifth Couple: Husband: "A mere Flash in the pan, as I am a Gentleman and a Soldier!" Wife: "That's nothing uncommon my Dear -- the only way is to try again."
    • Sixth Couple: Husband: "Bring me the Hammer, Wife -- I want to make an improvement in my Tailpipe." Wife: "That I will, my Dear I love improvements of any kind."
    • Seventh Couple: Young Man: "This, Miss, is what we call the Cock -- and this is the Swell." Young Miss: "Well, I never knew so much of a Musket before -- how I should like to marry a soldier!"
    • Eighth Couple: Onlooker: "That a Military tail? I would not give a farthing for a Cart-load of them! I am told it is his Majesty's orders that every Gentleman Soldier in this Village shall at least have a tail of nine inches, to set a good example."

    "The Comforts -- and -- Curse of a Military Life" by T. Colley, a 1781 print which expresses indignation that military benefits (promotions, staying on active duty at full pay, etc.) weren't distributed according to merit, but rather according to connections, political influence, bribery, etc.
    [Huge Image]
    On the left: "FULL PAY - Borough Interest" (Two full-pay officers drinking claret, promotion papers received, offering a toast "To the Peace Makers").
    On the right: "HALF PAY - Ingrata Patria" [Latin for "Ungrateful Homeland"] A one-legged veteran in a garret, with three children (one of whom is about to drink "Small Beer") a picture on the wall is labeled "The Soldier Tired[??] of War", while hanging on the wall are his officer's sword, and a tricorne hat.
    Note that the full-pay pair are in favor of peace because they they don't need to depend on their military valor or the chances of war to advance in service, while the other man has little chance of returning to full-pay active service or being promoted except in wartime.
    Caption: "To the Commander in Cheif and Secretary of War -- Under All Administrations:
    Gent m .
    You have ever been found callous to the Meritorious claims of Veteran Soldiers and remain heroically unmoved by their memorials unless accompanied by a Bribe to your Secretaries or a Vote in a dirty Borough. In hopes that the pencil may Succeed where the pen has not, these contrasted Situations are humbly inscribed to you by an Injured&npsp&npsp&npsp Miles" [Miles = Latin for "soldier"]

    Political caricatures

    "Crying for a New Toy", a Jan. 25th 1803 caricature attributed to Isaac Cruikshank which portrays Napoleon's planned coronation in a rather undignified light:
    Nurse -- "Well Child, you shall have it, but I don't think you'll be a bit better for it, nor quieter when you've got it."
    Nappy -- "I will have it, I will, or else I'll cry -- give me the Crown!"
    (Torn picture of "the world" and broken crowns and scepters litter the floor.)

    "A Swarm of English Bees hiving in the Imperial Carriage!! -- Who would have thought it! -- A Scene at the London Museum, Piccadilly, or a peep at the spoils of ambition taken at the battle of Waterloo, being a new tax on John Bull, &c. &c.", caricature by George Cruikshank, Jan. 1816. (Of course, the "Museum" would have been a private business, charging admission to curiosity-seekers.):
    The museum employee is saying "This is one of Napoleon's shirts, Ladies", one would-be fashionable is saying to the other perched on the carriage "You're prime bang up!!", the rustic is saying to his wife "Look at zaber gashes", the gentleman whose shirt-front is being stepped on says "Oh! my Frill", the desolate Frenchman in the corner says "Oh! Mon dear Empreur, dis is de shattering sights", the man in the lower left corner is looking at a box labelled "This box contained upwards of 100 articles of solid gold &c.", and the mother ignoring the whole scene is telling her son, "Look at the Horses, Tommy."

    A caricature of the Prince Regent by George Cruickshank illustrating "The Political House that Jack Built" by William Hone (1819):
    Original caption:
    "This is THE MAN -- all shaven and shorn,
    All cover'd with Orders -- and all forlorn
    THE DANDY OF SIXTY, who bows with a grace,
    And has taste in wigs, collars, cuirasses and lace
    Who, to tricksters, and fools, leaves the State and its treasure,
    And, when Britain's in tears, sails about at his pleasure:
    Who spurn'd from his presence the Friends of his youth,
    And now has not one who will tell him the truth
    Who took to his counsels, in evil hour,
    The Friends of the Reasons of lawless Power
    That back the Public Informer,
    Who would put down the Thing,
    That, in spite of new Acts,
    And attempts to restrain it, by Soldiers or Tax,
    Will poison the Vermin, that plunder the Wealth
    That lay in the House,
    That Jack Built."
    (The "wealth" is Magna Carta, Bill of Rights, and Habeas Corpus the "thing" is a printing press.)

    Colored engraving of Peterloo Massacre (1819) by George Cruikshank:
    (Not a caricature.)
    Not all details strictly accord with contemporary descriptions the banner the woman is holding should read: Female Reformers of Roynton -- "Let us die like men and not be sold like slaves".

    "The March of Roguery", 1830 caricature by C. J. Grant:
    [Large Scan]
    Text in image: State [king, holding sceptre]: "I Rule" Church [bishop, with "�" under the crook of his arm]: "I Pray" Farmer [in smock]: "I Work for Both" Merchant: "I Cheat you Three" Lawyer: "I Fleece you Four" Doctor: "I Poison you Five" Devil: "I'll have all Six"

    Post-Regency but Pre-Victorian Caricatures and Satirical Drawings

    A few humorous pictures from the mid 1820's to the early 1830's (not including political caricatures from this period, which are in the immediately preceding section -- nor women's fashion caricatures, which are on the Victorian page):

    "Corinthian Steamers, or Costumes and Customs of 1824", Feb. 26 1824 caricature by W. Heath. This shows the very beginnings of the transition from Regency to Victorian with respect to facial hair and smoking (both of which were considered outlandish and un-English during the Regency, and are ridiculed here, but later would come to be considered highly respectable during the Victorian period):
    Caption: Flaming dandy (2nd from left): "Fire! Fire! oh Dear, my best Mustacios will be quite Destroyd!" Alarmed dandy (next to left): "Fire! Fire!" Irish fireman (at left): "My Master, I must fetch our Engine to put out your Steam Engine"
    At the right of the image a dandy is blowing smoke in a lady's face, in flagrant violation of the etiquette of the time (in which smoking was mostly not done indoors at all, and never in the presence of ladies). Caption is "Fond of Steaming Ladies! do you smoke it, eh!" (The steam engine was a shiny new technology in 1824, so smokers are jocularly compared to steam-engines. ) Moustaches were associated with foreign (continental European) and military influences at the time (and so had a secondary association with conspicuous dandyism), while beards were totally out of fashion (generally only a few elderly working-class people and invalids would have had them).

    "Term Time", satire on lawyers, from "Illustrations of Time" by George Cruikshank, 1827:
    In background: The formal procession which marks the opening of a legal "term" (court season). Legal individual: "Gentlemen, it was a very fine Oyster! The court awards you a shell each." In bag of legal documents: "Noodle v. Doodle" Noodle and Doodle don't appear to be pleased with the legal resolution of their dispute. Over donation box, at the barred window of jail (presumably debtor's prison): "Pray Remember the Poor Debtors" On piece of paper on ground: "Pray Remember the Poor Creditors"
    [This was an old joke -- in 1791 a caricature engraved by Bowles after Dighton, with the title "A Sharp between Two Flats", showed a legal gentleman (the "sharp") dividing an oyster among the opposing parties in a lawsuit, with the caption "A Pearly Shell for HIM and THEE -- the OYSTER is the Lawyer's Fee".]

    Teaching one's aged progenitress the proper way in which to do the thing ("The Age of Intellect", humorous illustration on a proverbial phrase by George Cruikshank, 1829):
    Notice that the tyke has Shakespeare, Halley, Bede, Hume, Gibbon, Flamsted, Milton, Bentley, Boyle, Newton, and Euclid in his toy-basket, and Theology, Algebra, Bacon, and Locke on the floor (and scientific apparatus and Torricelli on the table), while grandma is reading "Who killed Cock Robin?" (a nursery rhyme).
    (Dialogue in image here)

    Satire on the coming age of steam ("A View in Whitechapel Road", after H. T. Alken, 1831):
    [Large File]
    The two large steam coaches are named "The Infernal Defiance -- From Yarmouth to London" and "The Dreadful Vengeance -- Colchester, London"
    On the rear of the coach in front is a banner proclaiming "Warranted free from Damp", the small delivery wagon has "Bread served Hot" on its side, and the service station proclaims "Coals Sold Here: only 4s. 6d. per Pound(?)"
    As Paul Johnson has documented in his book The Birth of the Modern , the early British railroad companies were at pains to preclude any possible competition from free-running steam coaches (which may not have been too practicable anyway. ).

    For Victorian caricatures, see my Victorian page.

    William Henry Pyne's vignettes of working-class life and traveling

    The following scans are mainly taken from the 1806 book Microcosm , which contains William Henry Pyne's engravings of rural and working-class life, with an accompanying commentary.

    "Mower's family travelling" (original uncolored engraving):
    A mower and his family on the move. (If this family had a more or less secure base to return to during the agricultural off-season, then they may not have been quite as badly off as you would think by looking at them -- but if they were carrying all their worldly possessions on their backs, then their lives were likely to have been rather grim.)

    Pavel Petrovich Svinin watercolors (now attributed to John Lewis Krimmel)

    Pavel Petrovich Svinin was a Russian who visited the United States (as secretary to the Russian diplomatic representative) in the early 1810's, during which he painted a number of watercolors of life in America. Later he published the book Voyage Pittoresque Aux Etats-Unis de l'Amérique par Paul Svignine en 1811, 1812, et 1813 . A German translation of the book is available on-line here. Later scholars agree that the paintings are not Svinin's but those of John Lewis Krimmel.

    Note: These paintings belong to The Metropolitan Museum of Art

    Pavel Petrovich Svinin, Merrymaking at a Wayside Inn (watercolor):
    This depicts travellers grabbing a very hurried and impromptu dance on the road in early 1810's America (in rural Pennsylvania?), and so shows practices that would have been considered rather inelegant in genteel circles in England at the time (such as smoking in the presence of ladies, smoking indoors, taking off one's tailcoat in the presence of ladies -- leaving a man wearing only waistcoat and shirt -- and holding onto one's horsewhip while dancing!).
    A grayscale scan (lower quality, but slightly less cropped around the edges) is also available.

    John Lewis Krimmel

    (John Lewis Krimmel was a painter active in Pennsylvania during the 1810's.)

    Painting of Celebration of July 4th 1819, Philadelphia:
    /> (non-huge scan)
    /> (A huge scan which lets you make out some of the lettering if you don't want to load this, then the inscription over the entrance to the leftmost tent reads "Don't give up the Ship", that over the entrance to the rightmost tent reads "The Battle of New Orleans", and the words on the flag are "Virtue, Liberty, Independence".)

    "The Country Wedding" by John Lewis Krimmel, 1820 painting depicting the marriage of the daughter of a moderately prosperous Pennsylvania farmer in the 1810's (the bride's wedding dress will probably be used as her regular "Sunday best" dress for the next year or so):
    Here's some commentary that accompanied an engraving of the painting printed in Analectic Magazine (1820):

    The Country Wedding is engraved from a painting by Krimmel, an artist not sufficiently known to be duly appreciated. He is a native of Germany, but long since chose this country for his residence, and has painted many pictures in which the style of Wilkie -- so much admired in England -- and Gerard Dou so much celebrated of yore -- is most successfully followed. He avoids the broad humor of the Flemish school as much as possible, as not congenial to the refinement of modern taste, and aims rather at a true portraiture of nature in real, rustic life.

    In the picture here presented he has delineated a scene of no rare occurrence in the dwelling of our native yeomenry. The whole is in admirable keeping. The furniture and decorations of the rooms, the costume and attitudes of the characters show perfectly the inside of a farmer's dwelling, and the business that occupies the group. The old clergyman appears to have just arrived, his saddlebags, hat and whip, lie on the chair near the door, the bride stands in all her rustic finery, rustic bloom and rustic bashfulness. The bride-groom's hand on her shoulder, seems intended to revive her courage, while the manner in which he grasps her hand is at once affectionate and awkward. The distress of the mother solaced by the father, who points to the younger daughter, as if indicating her as the successor to her sister's rank in the family, is well expressed. And the by-play at the door, which is opened by a servant girl to admit an old woman, the awkward affectation of grace and importance in the bride's-maid, whose attention seems to be attracted by what is passing between the young man and young woman on the other side of the room, all are full of life and true character of painting.

    Mr. Krimmel's painting room, in Spruce street above Seventh, in Philadelphia, contains many admirable specimens in the same style. His country dance, Return from camp, Return from boarding school, &c. afford the amateur a rich and varied repast.

    Sketch of a Christmas celebration among German immigrants to Pennsylvania in the 1810's:
    Notable features (according to commentary by Milo M. Naeve) include a small Christmas tree on the table with a fence enclosure surrounding it presents heaped on plates and a switch included among the presents for a child who had been naughty. (Note that this is not the way that most Americans would have celebrated Christmas at the time -- much less most English families. )

    Diana Sperling watercolors:

    Pseudo-Regency illustrations

    For some reason, semi-sentimentalized depictions of Regency young ladies or children were popular in the late Victorian and the first decades of this century (on Valentines and such) here's a few examples of this genre (provenance generally uncertain):

    In The Wood-carver's Shop, illustration by Howard Pyle for "By Land and Sea", published in Harper's Monthly , December 1895:
    A Victorian illustration of a Regency young lady posing as a model for the carving of a ship's figurehead (the man dozing in the background is her father the ship-owner, who's commissioning the figurehead).
    You can read the Pyle "story" (such as it is) on-line at Cornell University's web-site.
    Here's another illustration from this article, A Sailor's Sweetheart, showing the young lady demurely and discreetly favoring a grinning sailor over the woodcarver. [Mediocre scan] (Pyle is fairly accurate in depicting Regency clothing, but in this picture she's shown as still wearing the same dress when outdoors -- even though it's a very indoors dress, and not at all a "walking dress".)

    "Two Strings To Her Bow", a Victorian "genre" painting by John Pettie, 1882 ("two strings to one's bow" is a traditional English proverb):
    This depicts a Regency young lady delighted at being the focus of attention of two rival beaux, and even seeming to enjoy playing them off against each other. It would probably have struck a somewhat false note for a Victorian artist to portray a contemporary respectable young lady uninhibitedly rejoicing in playing such a game (unless the illustration was didactically disapproving), but by moving it back to the Regency, it all somehow became quaint and historical, and the artist was freed from any perceived necessity to be morally disapproving. (In Pettie's painting, the bodice of her dress and the sharp vertical creases spaced widely around the hem are not really authentic Regency styles.)

    Contrariwise, below is an "Anti-Regency" picture (i.e. one depicting conspicuously non-Regency fashions in a context where Regency styles should have been shown to be historically accurate). It seems that in the mid-Victorian period (when Kate Greenaway was still unknown) the Victorians often preferred to draw a discreet veil over Regency fashions -- since at the time some thought that such styles had been shamelessly indecent many would have felt slightly uncomfortable to be reminded that their mothers or grandmothers had once promenaded about in such fashions (see this 1857 cartoon) and perhaps the majority would have found it somewhat difficult to really empathize with (or take seriously) the struggles of a heroine of art or literature if they were being constantly reminded that she was wearing Regency styles. (This is why Thackeray drew the women wearing 1840's fashions in his illustrations to his 1847 novel Vanity Fair , set in the 1810's. And in her account of her childhood in post-Civil War Kansas, Kate Stephens wrote: "We were past the hoop-skirt era. But the idea which brought the hoop-skirt forward still survived -- the idea that skirts are to conceal and let escape no suggestion of women's nether extremities not even the line of the knee to show. For a woman's dress to hint that the wearer had legs was, in that mid-Victorian day, immodest.") See the women's Regency fashion and women's Victorian fashion pages on this site for more discussions and illustrations on Regency styles, and the differences between Victorian and Regency styles.

    "Before Waterloo", by Henry Nelson O'Neil (1868) this presumably attempts to depict the Duchess of Richmond's famous ball on the eve of the battle of Waterloo:
    The fashions shown seem to be based on elements of 1830's and early 1860's fashions, and show no particular resemblance to the actual styles of 1815 (except perhaps in having slightly highish waistlines).

    Other Regency sites:

    (For sites with on-line illustrations of Regency women's clothing styles specifically, see the links section of my page on the subject.)

    David, The Emperor Napoleon in His Study in the Tuileries

    At the beginning of the movie The Godfather, Michael Corleone (played by Al Pacino) wants nothing to do with his family’s involvement in organized crime. When telling a family story to his girlfriend, he concludes, “That’s my family, Kay, That’s not me.” As the film progresses, however, Michael’s father and older brother are the focus of violent attacks and Michael becomes more active in the family business until—at the end of the film—he has assumed the leadership of the Corleone crime syndicate by killing all of his enemies. Fictional characters—both in film and in novels—have arcs. They change through time. The same is true of real characters from history. They often have a rise, but just as often there is a precipitous fall. Napoleon Bonaparte is but one example.

    Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne, 1806, oil on canvas, 259 x 162 cm (Musée de l’Armée, Hôtel des Invalides, Paris)

    A visual starting point could be Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres’s 1806 painting, Napoleon on His Imperial Throne (above). In this work, Ingres painted Napoleon as if he were an omnipotent ruler—rather than a mere mortal. But six years later, Jacques-Louis David (Ingres’s former teacher), painted The Emperor Napoleon in His Study in the Tulieries (1812). These two portraits—painted just six years apart—show a significant arc in the life and career of Napoleon.

    Jacques-Louis David, The Emperor Napoleon in his Study at the Tuileries, 1812, oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (National Gallery of Art)

    Alexander Hamilton, the Tenth Duke of Hamilton (and sadly, of no relationship to the de facto leader of the Federalist Party in the United States with whom he shares a name) commissioned David to paint The Emperor Napoleon in His Study in the Tulieries in 1811.

    Finished the following year, it shows a standing Napoleon, about three-quarters life-sized. He slightly turns his face to look at the viewer, and his right hand is tucked into his uniform jacket (to this day, some jackets often have a vertically zippered pocket on the left side this is called a Napoleon pocket).

    The blue jacket with the white facing and red upturned cuffs and the gold epaulettes identify him as a colonel in the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers—a group of elite soldiers that Napoleon personally commanded. The two medals pinned to Napoleon’s left breast speak to the scope of his rule. The leftmost of the two is the Order of the Iron Crown, an organization Napoleon founded in 1805 as the King of Italy. The second medal is that of the French Legion of Honor.

    Napoleon (detail), Jacques-Louis David, The Emperor Napoleon in his Study at the Tuileries, 1812, oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (National Gallery of Art)

    Napoleon’s uniform is completed with white knee breeches and stockings, and black shoes with gold buckles. Although he wears a military uniform, this is hardly a military portrait. He has discarded his officer’s sword—it rests on the chair on the right side of the painting—and Napoleon is shown doing the administrative work of a civic leader. He stands between the high-backed red velvet chair on the right and in front of the Empire-styled desk behind him. A gilded regal lion serves as the visible leg of the desk, and an ink-stained quill, candle-lit lamp, and various papers can be seen atop his writing table.

    Desk and chair (detail), Jacques-Louis David, The Emperor Napoleon in his Study at the Tuileries, 1812, oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (National Gallery of Art)

    Fleur de lis (left) and the bee

    A rolled up sheet of paper with the letters COD can be seen on the right side of the desk. This detail alludes to the Napoleonic Code—the French civil law code Napoleon established in 1804. The bees, which resemble an upside-down fleurs-de-lys, can be seen in the velvet that covers the chair (both the bee and the fleur de lys were symbols of the French monarchy).

    David has signed and dated the portrait on a rolled up map to the side of the table, a leather-bound volume of Plutarch (in French: Plutarque) is beside it. Plutarch was an ancient Roman biographer and historian, most famous in the nineteenth century as the author of The Parallel Lives, a text that explores the virtues and vices of Greek and Roman rulers, men such as Alexander the Great, Themistocles, Julius Caesar, and Cicero. The inclusion of this book was a way to visually tie Napoleon to the great rulers of the classical past who he so admired. And yet, not everything is perfect within this space.

    Signature and book by Plutarch (detail), Jacques-Louis David, The Emperor Napoleon in his Study at the Tuileries, 1812, oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (National Gallery of Art)

    Although Napoleon stands and looks out towards the viewer, he looks more disheveled than not. His hair—complete with the gray typical of a man in his 50s—appears unkempt and tousled. In addition, his uniform would hardly pass muster. A cuff button has been undone, and his silken stockings and trousers appear wrinkled from being worn for an exceptionally long working day. This fact is alluded to by two time-bearing details. The grandfather clock displays the time as 4:12. And the candles of his desk lamp—one nearly burned to its completing, another recently extinguished, several others seemingly expired—make it clear that it is not the late afternoon, but rather the very early morning. Clearly, time was running short.

    Left: undone cuff right: candles (details), Jacques-Louis David, The Emperor Napoleon in his Study at the Tuileries, 1812, oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (National Gallery of Art)

    Glykon, Weary Hercules, bronze, 3rd century B.C.E. or later Roman copy (Louvre)

    This portrait seems to suggest that Napoleon was working too late and too hard at the time it was commissioned, and indeed, Napoleon’s time as a world ruler was coming to a climactic finale. The year the painting was completed—1812—was a particularly calamitous one for Napoleon, as he was in the middle of the disastrous invasion of Russia. Less than two years later, on 4 April 1814, Napoleon abdicated his throne and was exiled to the island of Elba. David skillfully and subtly depicts Napoleon’s transition from omnipotent ruler to fallible commander. In this regards, David’s portrait can be seen as a painted contemporary version of the Greek sculptor Glykon’s statue, The Weary Hercules, a small bronze copy that David likely saw in the Louvre. Like the mighty Hercules, Napoleon had once been an all-powerful leader. But as Hercules had his downfall at the hands of his jealous wife Deianara, so too did Napoleon have his downfall at the hands of the Duke of Wellington. A failed return to power in 1815 caused Napoleon’s permanent banishment to the island of Saint Helena where he died in 1821. David’s portrait of the ruler in his study, thus constitutes one of the last formal portraits of the great French ruler.


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