How much is known about the Earl of Sandwich's sandwich?

How much is known about the Earl of Sandwich's sandwich?

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According to the Wikipedia article on sandwich, the food was named after the Earl of Sandwich. How much details exist about his first sandwich? Is there enough details to accurately recreate it?

It is said that the 4th Earl of Sandwich, John Montagu was the inventor of the Sandwich. He was also a supportor of Captain James Cook as First Lord of the Admirality approving funds for Cook's second and third expeditions into the Pacific. In return captain Cook named the Sandwich Islands( Hawaii) after him.

The story goes that The Earl was playing poker and wanted to eat meat without leaving the Poker Table. So he asked his servants to put the meat between two slices of bread. The poker table idea may not be entirely accurate. It may or may not have been made up by people who were not friends of his. Another story says he may have been working and didn't want to leave his desk.

Many of the articles I read simply say he put "meat " between the bread. However, this article says it was Salted beef-(Corned beef) which fits in with the era. Salt was used as a preservative.

I hope this helps.

John Montagu, 4th earl of Sandwich

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John Montagu, 4th earl of Sandwich, in full John Montagu, 4th earl of Sandwich, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, Baron Montagu of Saint Neots, (born November 13, 1718—died April 30, 1792, London, England), British first lord of the Admiralty during the American Revolution (1776–81) and the man for whom the sandwich was named.

Having succeeded his grandfather, Edward Montagu, the 3rd earl, in 1729, he studied at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and traveled abroad and then took his seat in the House of Lords in 1739. He served as postmaster general (1768–70) and secretary of state for the northern department (1763–65, 1770–71). In the latter capacity he took a leading part in the prosecution (1763) of John Wilkes, the British politician and agitator, whose friend he once had been, thereby earning the sobriquet of “Jemmy Twitcher,” after a treacherous character in John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera. He also was first lord of the Admiralty (1748–51, 1771–82). During the latter period his critics accused him of using the office to obtain bribes and to distribute political jobs. Although he was frequently attacked for corruption, his administrative ability has been recognized. However, during the American Revolution he insisted upon keeping much of the British fleet in European waters because of the possibility of French attack, and he was subjected to considerable criticism for insufficient naval preparedness.

His interest in naval affairs and his promotion of exploration led the English explorer Capt. James Cook to name the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) after him in 1778. His Voyage Round the Mediterranean was published in 1799. In his private life, Sandwich was a profligate gambler and a rake. The sandwich was named after him however, the story that ties the origin of the name to a specific incident in 1762 in which Sandwich (according to an account in a French travel book) spent 24 hours at a gaming table without other food is widely thought to be apocryphal.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.

The fascinating history of the banh mi

At first glance, the alley off Cao Thang Street in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) could be mistaken for countless others across this city of eight or so million. Motorbikes zip past shops selling second-hand cellphones, sporty backpacks and shampoo packets. One street vendor serves bun thit nuong (rice noodles with grilled pork), while another – riding a three-wheeled motorbike – touts the refreshing joys of kem dua (coconut ice cream) on a hot day.

The difference is this busy little Saigon alley is hallowed ground for sandwich fans. That’s because the squat, pale-peach building with a rusty tin canopy and faded sign is the birthplace of the sandwich that’s taken over the world: banh mi. And eating one here, at ground zero, comes with a surprise.

But first, what’s a banh mi?

No sandwich really can compare. It’s pure fusion food, where every bite of its complex ingredients of flaky baguette, pickled vegetables, spices, herbs and grilled meats doubles as a lesson in this country’s history and philosophy.

During the French colonial period from 1887 to 1954, Vietnam learned about a lot of new things: coffee, Christianity, the Roman alphabet, cute villas, huge European-style prisons and crispy baguettes. Initially these bread loaves were filled with the priciest of meats, becoming exclusively a rich person’s sandwich known as banh tay, or "western bread.”

Vietnamese banh mi sandwich &mdash Photo courtesy of Getty Images / rudisill

Then in 1954, after the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese sandwich-makers pivoted to yin-yang. That’s what Vietnamese chefs always aim for: balancing "hot" and "cold" ingredients to ensure diners finish feeling happy and healthy. (Locals will tell you, if you go on an exclusive eating spree of, say, mangoes – a rare "hot" fruit – brace yourself for a nasty cough.)

Eating a local banh mi shows how this works.

It begins with the flaky, wheat-bread sheath (mi means wheat). Then dips deeper into the spice of chili, the richness of fried or grilled pork, the savory tang of Maggi sauce (a fermented wheat protein the French brought), a softening mayo and cilantro, and that distinctive crunch of pickled cucumber, radish or carrot. Writer Andrew Lam dotingly summed up each taste as "a moment of rapture." Amen.

It’s believed the banh mi hails from Hoa Ma, the District 3 sandwich shop open since 1958 and in this location since 1960. Its creators were a northern couple who immigrated to Saigon after 1954 and named their shop after their village outside Hanoi. The goal was to create take-away food with fresh ingredients and – unlike the French prequel – sold at a more affordable price.

This bahn mi spot is still open and is run by the same family, in fact, the granddaughter, Thanh Truc, puts every dish together up front.

Each morning, the staff whisk diners to one of 15 outdoor aluminum tables. A bilingual menu describes the two items: a sandwich of assorted porks and meats with or without two fried eggs. What comes next is a little surprising.

First comes the bread, delivered alone on a green plate, along with a server of pâté coated in mayo and another with pickled veggies. Soon a hot platter of proteins follows – two eggs with golden yokes, grilled tofu cut into triangles, fried pork, sliced sausage and grilled onion.

Many local diners, their motorbikes parked next to the table, top their platter in Maggi or chili sauce, then eat with a fork, alternating with bites of bread pulled apart by hand. Others stuff the ingredients into mini sandwiches they build as they go.

This is not an everyday experience in Vietnam, or anywhere really. Most sandwiches here are served to-go from street vendors who assemble everything into a somewhat secret medley. Here, it comes more like a banh mi kit. Everything’s out in the open. And helps you see the banh mi complexity in all its tasty glory.

It’s possible some sandwich enthusiasts who hotly debate what is and isn’t a "sandwich" on social media might be uncomfortable with this DIY methodology. Honestly, Hoa Ma is too busy to worry much about what qualifies as a "sandwich," but they sure know what a banh mi is.

And the world has noticed.

Hoa Ma (53 Cao Thang St, District 3) is open 6 am to 11 am daily. Sandwiches with eggs are about $2 and without they go for about $1.50. They also serve water and coffee.


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Sandwich, in its basic form, slices of meat, cheese, or other food placed between two slices of bread. Although this mode of consumption must be as old as meat and bread, the name was adopted only in the 18th century for John Montagu, 4th earl of Sandwich. According to an often-cited account from a contemporary French travel book, Sandwich had sliced meat and bread brought to him at the gaming table on one occasion so that he could continue to play as he ate it seems more likely, however, that he ate these sandwiches as he worked at his desk or that the world became aware of them when he requested them in London society. His title lent the preparation cachet, and soon it was fashionable to serve sandwiches on the European continent, and the word was incorporated into the French language. Since that time the sandwich has been incorporated into virtually every cuisine of the West by virtue of its simplicity of preparation, portability, and endless variety.

Any type of roll or bread and any type of food that can be conveniently so eaten can go into a sandwich, hot or cold. British tea sandwiches are made with thin-cut bread filled with fish paste, cucumber, watercress, or tomato. Scandinavian smørrebrød are served open-faced, with artfully composed toppings of fish, sliced meats, and salads. In France, hollowed-out rolls are a popular base. The United States contributed elaborate sandwich formulas, two of the most successful being the club sandwich of sliced chicken or turkey, bacon, lettuce, and tomato, and the Reuben sandwich of corned beef, Swiss cheese, sauerkraut, and Russian dressing served grilled on black bread. Hot sandwiches, notably the ubiquitous hamburger on a bun, are a staple of the American diet, and the peanut butter and jelly sandwich is the mainstay of the American schoolchild.

The Earl Of Sandwich Is A Real Dude. Here's Everything You Need To Know.

The Earl of Sandwich sounds like a mythical figure from British folklore, but he is, in fact, a very real person. John Montagu, who currently holds the title, is the 11th Earl of Sandwich and serves in the House of Lords.

To kick off HuffPost’s Epic Sandwich Month, we interviewed Montagu, who answers to the formal address of ― no joke ― Lord Sandwich.

Montagu told HuffPost about his hopes and dreams for fish sandwiches, his true feelings about mayonnaise and his belief that sandwich halves should always be cut into triangles. But first, let’s dig deep into the history of his enviable title.

Montagu is a direct descendant of John Montagu, the 4th Earl of Sandwich, who is often credited as the inventor of the sandwich. While he may not have invented it, the sandwich was named for him after a particularly lazy moment of ingenuity:

According to legend, the fourth earl enjoyed gambling, and in the middle of a particularly engrossing stretch at the card table in 1762, he ate nothing but a piece of roast beef between two slices of toasted bread because he could hold it in one hand, allowing him to continue playing without having to pause for a meal.

Different renditions of this story have the earl specifically asking for beef between two slices of bread or just requesting something he could eat without having to leave the card table, which forced the house cook to get creative. Some state that he was a gambling addict, while at least one biographer posited that he was not gambling but rather hard at work at his desk and did not wish to take a break for meals.

However it went down, historians know that his title, Earl of Sandwich, was associated with the food term “sandwich,” which became fashionable in England around the time.

In 1762, author and historian Edward Gibbon wrote in a diary entry that he observed “Twenty or thirty, perhaps, of the first men in the kingdom, in point of fashion and fortune, supping at little tables covered with a napkin, in the middle of a coffee-room, upon a bit of cold meat, or a sandwich, and drinking a glass of punch.”

The current Earl of Sandwich concedes that people in England and beyond were certainly eating sandwiches long before they were ever called sandwiches. He also does not necessarily think his ancestor was a gambling addict, as some versions of the story have suggested.

Speaking to HuffPost from his family’s estate at Mapperton, Montagu described a portrait of the 4th Earl of Sandwich, which hangs in the home.

“I think looking at his attire, it was more difficult for gentlemen of that period to act as we do, because it was difficult to be informal,” he said. “Life was very organized, and even if you just sit at a little table in your London club, you’d still be wearing different costumes and you’d be handling a scroll of paper like he is in this portrait.”

In this sense, eating a piece of meat between two slices of bread was a matter of ease and convenience amid the formality of everyday life for the earl.

“I’m sure his working life was very active. But, of course, every nobleman of that period knew how to play cards and probably gambled, and he was no exception. And he enjoyed the company of other people,” Montagu continued. “So he would’ve been possibly eating some of these [sandwiches] later in the evening. But I do think it was the minority of the time.”

Over the past couple of decades, Montagu’s historical culinary link has become a source of family income. In 2004, he partnered with his younger son Orlando and Planet Hollywood founder Robert Earl to launch Earl of Sandwich, a chain of fast-casual sandwich restaurants.

The chain has more than 30 locations in the U.S. and one at Disneyland Paris. They serve such sandwiches as “The Original 1762,” “The Earl’s Club” and “The Full Montagu.”

Though Montagu is quick to emphasize he is not a chef, he does have some opinions on his family’s namesake food. Keep scrolling for more of his thoughts on sandwiches.

What’s your favorite sandwich?

“I rather enjoy a traditional sandwich, roast beef and some salad like watercress, but not one of these very large American sandwiches. I’m not fond of those,” he told HuffPost, adding that he also enjoys a classic French croque monsieur and typically prefers his sandwiches on “wholemeal bread.”

Are sandwiches your favorite food?

“They are at lunchtime because I very rarely eat formally at lunchtime. I’m like a lot of other people who just need to keep going through the lunch hour. At this moment, I’m sitting thinking I really ought to go make some lunch. But I’m not very enthusiastic about making a sandwich. I’m a bit lazy. My favorite would be at lunchtime with a minimum of difficulty.”

Our Commitment to Quality

Some 250 years after the invention of the sandwich, Earl of Sandwich® restaurants have embraced the idea and crafted it into a made-to-order, freshly baked sandwich like no other. Our menu pays tribute to the art of the sandwich. From our signature namesakes like The Original 1762® and The Full Montagu, to our fresh salads, we believe in using the highest quality ingredients in everything we serve. We believe that sandwiches are more than a convenience food they should be carefully crafted and thoroughly enjoyed.


The general order of precedence among earls is:

Number Title Date of creation Arms Current holder Notes
1. The Earl of Shrewsbury (1442) Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22nd Earl of Shrewsbury Also Earl Talbot (GB 1784) and Earl of Waterford (Ire 1446)
2. The Earl of Derby (1485) Edward Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby
3. The Earl of Huntingdon (1529) William Hastings-Bass, 17th Earl of Huntingdon
4. The Earl of Pembroke (1551) William Herbert, 18th Earl of Pembroke Also Earl of Montgomery (E 1605) - see below
5. The Earl of Devon (1553) Charles Courtenay, 19th Earl of Devon
6. The Earl of Lincoln (1572) Robert Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln
7. The Earl of Suffolk (1603) Michael Howard, 21st Earl of Suffolk Also Earl of Berkshire (E 1626) - see below
The Earl of Montgomery (1605) William Herbert, 15th Earl of Montgomery Also Earl of Pembroke (E 1551) - see above
8. The Earl of Denbigh (1622) Alexander Feilding, 12th Earl of Denbigh Also Earl of Desmond (Ire 1628)
9. The Earl of Westmorland (1624) Anthony Fane, 16th Earl of Westmorland
The Earl of Berkshire (1626) Michael Howard, 14th Earl of Berkshire Also Earl of Suffolk (E 1603) - see above
10. The Earl of Lindsey (1626) Richard Bertie, 14th Earl of Lindsey Also Earl of Abingdon (E 1682) - see below
11. The Earl of Winchilsea (1628) Daniel Finch-Hatton, 17th Earl of Winchilsea Also Earl of Nottingham (E 1681) - see below
12. The Earl of Sandwich (1660) John Montagu, 11th Earl of Sandwich
13. The Earl of Essex (1661) Paul Capell, 11th Earl of Essex
14. The Earl of Carlisle (1661) George Howard, 13th Earl of Carlisle
15. The Earl of Shaftesbury (1672) Nicholas Ashley-Cooper, 12th Earl of Shaftesbury
The Earl of Nottingham (1681) Daniel James Hatfield Finch-Hatton, 12th Earl of Nottingham Also Earl of Winchilsea (1628) - see above
The Earl of Abingdon (1682) Richard Henry Rupert Bertie, 9th Earl of Abingdon Also Earl of Lindsey (1626) - see above
16. The Earl of Portland (1689) Timothy Bentinck, 12th Earl of Portland
17. The Earl of Scarbrough (1690) Richard Lumley, 13th Earl of Scarbrough
18. The Earl of Albemarle (1697) Rufus Keppel, 10th Earl of Albemarle
19. The Earl of Coventry (1697) George Coventry, 13th Earl of Coventry
20. The Earl of Jersey (1697) William Child-Villiers, 10th Earl of Jersey

As can be seen from the list above, the men who are (1) Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, (2) Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, (3) Earl of Lindsey and Abingdon and (4) Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham each hold two earldoms in the peerage of England. There are therefore 24 such earldoms whose holder does not hold a higher peerage.

Note: The precedence of the older Scottish earldoms is determined by the Decreet of Ranking of 1606, and not by seniority.

Number Title Date of creation Arms Current holder Peerage Notes
1. The Earl of Crawford (1398) Robert Lindsay, 29th Earl of Crawford [Notes 1] [1] Scotland Also Earl of Balcarres (1651)
2. The Earl of Erroll (1453) Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll Scotland
3. The Earl of Sutherland (1230 or 1275 or 1347) Alastair Sutherland, 25th Earl of Sutherland Scotland
4. The Countess of Mar (1114 or 1457) Margaret of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar Scotland
5. The Earl of Rothes (1458) James Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes Scotland
6. The Earl of Morton (1458) Stewart Douglas, 22nd Earl of Morton Scotland
7. The Earl of Buchan (1469) Malcolm Erskine, 17th Earl of Buchan Scotland Speech in House of Lords at HL Deb 17 June 1998 vol 590 cc1599-678
8. The Earl of Eglinton (1508) Hugh Montgomerie, 19th Earl of Eglinton Scotland Also Earl of Winton (UK 1859)
9. The Earl of Caithness (1455) Malcolm Sinclair, 20th Earl of Caithness Scotland
10. The Earl of Mar and Kellie (1404 or 1565) James Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar Scotland
11. The Earl of Moray (1562) John Stuart, 21st Earl of Moray Scotland
12. The Earl of Home (1605) David Douglas-Home, 15th Earl of Home Scotland
13. The Earl of Perth (1605) John Eric Drummond, 9th Earl of Perth Scotland
14. The Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (1606) Simon Bowes-Lyon, 19th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne Scotland Also Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (UK 1937)
15. The Earl of Haddington (1619) George Baillie-Hamilton, 14th Earl of Haddington Scotland
16. The Earl of Galloway (1623) Andrew Stewart, 14th Earl of Galloway Scotland
17. The Earl of Lauderdale (1624) Ian Maitland, 18th Earl of Lauderdale Scotland
18. The Earl of Lindsay (1633) James Lindesay-Bethune, 16th Earl of Lindsay Scotland
19. The Earl of Loudoun (1633) Simon Abney-Hastings, 15th Earl of Loudoun Scotland
20. The Earl of Kinnoull (1633) Charles Hay, 16th Earl of Kinnoull Scotland
21. The Earl of Elgin (1633) Andrew Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin Scotland Also Earl of Kincardine (1647)
22. The Earl of Wemyss (1633) James Charteris, 13th Earl of Wemyss Scotland Also Earl of March (1697)
23. The Earl of Dalhousie (1633) [2] James Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie Scotland
24. The Earl of Airlie (1639) David Ogilvy, 13th Earl of Airlie Scotland
25. The Earl of Leven (1641) Alexander Ian Leslie-Melville, 15th Earl of Leven Scotland Also Earl of Melville (1690)
26. The Earl of Dysart (1643) John Grant, 13th Earl of Dysart Scotland
27. The Earl of Selkirk (1646) Presently disclaimed by James Douglas-Hamilton, Baron Selkirk of Douglas Scotland
28. The Earl of Northesk (1647) Patrick Carnegy, 15th Earl of Northesk Scotland
The Earl of Kincardine (1647) Andrew Bruce, 15th Earl of Kincardine Scotland Also Earl of Elgin (1633)
The Earl of Balcarres (1651) Robert Lindsay, 12th Earl of Balcarres Scotland Also Earl of Crawford (1398)
29. The Earl of Dundee (1660) Alexander Scrymgeour, 12th Earl of Dundee Scotland
30. The Earl of Newburgh (1660)
Filippo, 11th Prince Rospigliosi, 12th Earl of Newburgh Scotland
31. The Earl of Annandale and Hartfell (1662) Patrick Hope-Johnstone, 11th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell Scotland
32. The Earl of Dundonald (1669) Iain Cochrane, 15th Earl of Dundonald Scotland
33. The Earl of Kintore (1677) James Keith, 14th Earl of Kintore Scotland
34. The Earl of Dunmore (1686) Malcolm Murray, 12th Earl of Dunmore Scotland
The Earl of Melville (1690) Alexander Ian Leslie-Melville, 14th Earl of Melville Scotland Also Earl of Leven (1641)
35. The Earl of Orkney (1696) Peter St John, 9th Earl of Orkney Scotland
The Earl of March (1697) James Charteris, 9th Earl of March Scotland Also Earl of Wemyss (1633)
36. The Earl of Seafield (1701) Ian Ogilvie-Grant, 13th Earl of Seafield Scotland Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Seafield
37. The Earl of Stair (1703) John Dalrymple, 14th Earl of Stair Scotland
38. The Earl of Rosebery (1703) Neil Primrose, 7th Earl of Rosebery Scotland Also Earl of Midlothian (UK 1911)
39. The Earl of Glasgow (1703) Patrick Boyle, 10th Earl of Glasgow Scotland

As can be seen from the list above, the men who are (1) Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, (2) Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, (3) Earl of Wemyss and Earl of March and (4) Earl of Leven and Melville each hold two earldoms in the peerage of Scotland. There are therefore 43 such earldoms whose holder does not hold a higher peerage.

  1. The Earl Ferrers (1711)
  2. The Earl of Dartmouth (1711)
  3. The Earl of Tankerville (1714)
    • Peter Bennet, 10th Earl of Tankerville
  4. The Earl of Aylesford (1714)
    • Charles Finch-Knightley, 12th Earl of Aylesford
  5. The Earl of Macclesfield (1721)
    • Richard Parker, 9th Earl of Macclesfield
  6. The Earl Waldegrave (1729)
  7. The Earl of Harrington (1742)
  8. The Earl of Portsmouth (1743)
  9. The Earl of Warwick (1759) and Brooke (1746)
  10. The Earl of Buckinghamshire (1746)
    • George Hobart-Hampden, 10th Earl of Buckinghamshire
  11. The Earl of Guilford (1752)
  12. The Earl of Hardwicke (1754)
  13. The Earl of Ilchester (1756)
    • Robin Fox-Strangways, 10th Earl of Ilchester
  14. The Earl De La Warr (1761)
  15. The Earl of Radnor (1765)
  16. The Earl Spencer (1765)
  17. The Earl Bathurst (1772)
  18. The Earl of Clarendon (1776)
  19. The Earl of Mansfield (1776) and Mansfield (1792)
    • Alexander Murray, 9th Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield
  20. The Earl Talbot (1784) (Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England and Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland)
    • Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 7th Earl Talbot
  21. The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe (1789)
  22. The Earl Fortescue (1789)
    • Charles Fortescue, 8th Earl Fortescue
  23. The Earl of Carnarvon (1793)
  24. The Earl Cadogan (1800)
  25. The Earl of Malmesbury (1800)
    • James Harris, 7th Earl of Malmesbury
Number Title Date of creation Arms Current holder Peerage Notes
The Earl of Waterford 1446 Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22nd Earl of Waterford Ireland Also Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England and Earl Talbot in the Peerage of Great Britain
1. The Earl of Cork 1620 John Boyle, 15th Earl of Cork Ireland Also Earl of Orrery (1660)
2. The Earl of Westmeath 1621 William Anthony Nugent, 13th Earl of Westmeath Ireland
3. The Earl of Meath 1627 John Brabazon, 15th Earl of Meath Ireland
The Earl of Desmond 1628 Alexander Feilding, 11th Earl of Desmond Ireland Also Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England
4. The Earl of Cavan 1647 Roger Lambart, 13th Earl of Cavan Ireland
The Earl of Orrery 1660 John Boyle, 15th Earl of Orrery Ireland Also Earl of Cork
5. The Earl of Drogheda 1661 Derry Moore, 12th Earl of Drogheda Ireland
6. The Earl of Granard 1684 Peter Forbes, 10th Earl of Granard Ireland
7. The Earl of Darnley 1725 Ivo Bligh, 12th Earl of Darnley Ireland
8. The Earl of Bessborough 1739 Myles Ponsonby, 12th Earl of Bessborough Ireland Also Earl of Bessborough (UK 1937)
9. The Earl of Carrick 1748 (Arion) Thomas Piers Hamilton Butler, 11th Earl of Carrick Ireland
10. The Earl of Shannon 1756 Richard Boyle, 10th Earl of Shannon Ireland
11. The Earl of Arran 1762 Arthur Gore, 9th Earl of Arran Ireland
12. The Earl of Courtown 1762 Patrick Stopford, 9th Earl of Courtown Ireland
13. The Earl of Mexborough 1766 John Savile, 8th Earl of Mexborough Ireland
14. The Earl Winterton 1766 David Turnour, 8th Earl Winterton Ireland
15. The Earl of Kingston 1768 Robert King-Tenison, 12th Earl of Kingston Ireland
16. The Earl of Roden 1771 Robert Jocelyn, 10th Earl of Roden Ireland
17. The Earl of Lisburne 1776 David Vaughan, 9th Earl of Lisburne Ireland
18. The Earl of Clanwilliam 1776 Patrick Meade, 8th Earl of Clanwilliam Ireland
19. The Earl of Antrim 1785 Alexander McDonnell, 9th Earl of Antrim Ireland
20. The Earl of Longford 1785 Thomas Pakenham, 8th Earl of Longford Ireland
21. The Earl of Portarlington 1785 George Dawson-Damer, 7th Earl of Portarlington Ireland
22. The Earl of Mayo 1785 Charles Bourke, 11th Earl of Mayo Ireland
23. The Earl Annesley 1789 Michael Annesley, 12th Earl Annesley Ireland
24. The Earl of Enniskillen 1789 Andrew Cole, 7th Earl of Enniskillen Ireland
25. The Earl Erne 1789 John Crichton, 7th Earl Erne Ireland
26. The Earl of Lucan 1795 George Bingham, 8th Earl of Lucan Ireland
27. The Earl Belmore 1797 John Lowry-Corry, 8th Earl Belmore Ireland
28. The Earl Castle Stewart 1800 Arthur Stuart, 8th Earl Castle Stewart Ireland
29. The Earl of Donoughmore 1800 Richard Hely-Hutchinson, 8th Earl of Donoughmore Ireland
30. The Earl of Caledon 1800 Nicholas Alexander, 7th Earl of Caledon Ireland
31. The Earl of Limerick 1803 Edmund Pery, 7th Earl of Limerick Ireland
32. The Earl of Clancarty 1803 Nicholas Le Poer Trench, 9th Earl of Clancarty Ireland
33. The Earl of Gosford 1806 Charles Acheson, 7th Earl of Gosford Ireland
34. The Earl of Rosse 1806 Brendan Parsons, 7th Earl of Rosse Ireland
35. The Earl of Normanton 1806 James Agar, 7th Earl of Normanton Ireland
36. The Earl of Kilmorey 1822 Sir Richard Needham (6th Earl of Kilmorey) Ireland
37. The Earl of Listowel 1822 Francis Hare, 6th Earl of Listowel Ireland
38. The Earl of Norbury 1827 Richard Graham-Toler, 7th Earl of Norbury Ireland
39. The Earl of Ranfurly 1831 Edward Knox, 8th Earl of Ranfurly Ireland

As can be see from the list above, the man who is Earl of Waterford also holds an earldom in the Peerage of England and an earldom in the Peerage of Great Britain, the man who is Earl of Desmond also holds an earldom in the Peerage of England, and the man who is Earl of Cork is also Earl of Orrery. There are therefore 39 earldoms in the Peerage of Ireland whose holders derive their precedence from them.

  1. The Earl of Rosslyn (1801)
  2. The Earl of Craven (1801)
    • Benjamin Craven, 9th Earl of Craven
  3. The Earl of Onslow (1801)
  4. The Earl of Romney (1801)
  5. The Earl of Chichester (1801)
  6. The Earl of Wilton (1801)
  7. The Earl of Limerick (Ireland)The Earl of Clancarty (Ireland)
  8. The Earl of Powis (1804)
  9. The Earl Nelson (1805)
  10. The Earl of Gosford (Ireland)The Earl of Rosse (Ireland)The Earl of Normanton (Ireland)
  11. The Earl Grey (1806)
  12. The Earl of Lonsdale (1807)
  13. The Earl of Harrowby (1809)
  14. The Earl of Harewood (1812)
  15. The Earl of Minto (1813)
  16. The Earl Cathcart (1814)
  17. The Earl of Verulam (1815)
  18. The Earl of Saint Germans (1815)
    • Albert Eliot, 11th Earl of St Germans
  19. The Earl of Morley (1815)
    • Mark Parker, 7th Earl of Morley
  20. The Earl of Bradford (1815)
  21. The Earl of Eldon (1821)
    • John Scott, 6th Earl of Eldon
  22. The Earl Howe (1821)
  23. The Earl of Stradbroke (1821)
  24. The Earl Temple of Stowe (1822)
    • Grenville Temple-Gore-Langton, 8th Earl Temple of Stowe
    The Earl of Kilmorey (Ireland)The Earl of Listowel (Ireland)The Earl of Norbury (Ireland)
  25. The Earl Cawdor (1827)
  26. The Earl of Ranfurly (Ireland)
  27. The Earl of Lichfield (1831)
  28. The Earl of Durham (1833)
  29. The Earl Granville (1833)
    • Fergus Leveson-Gower, 6th Earl Granville
  30. The Earl of Effingham (1837)
    • David Howard, 7th Earl of Effingham
  31. The Earl of Ducie (1837)
  32. The Earl of Yarborough (1837)
  33. The Earl of Leicester (1837)
  34. The Earl of Gainsborough (1841)
    • Anthony Noel, 6th Earl of Gainsborough
  35. The Earl of Strafford (1847)
    • William Byng, 9th Earl of Strafford
  36. The Earl of Cottenham (1850)
    • Mark Pepys, 9th Earl of Cottenham
  37. The Earl Cowley (1857)
  38. The Earl of Dudley (1860)
  39. The Earl Russell (1861)
  40. The Earl of Cromartie (1861)
  41. The Earl of Kimberley (1866)
  42. The Earl of Wharncliffe (1876)
    • Richard Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, 5th Earl of Wharncliffe
  43. The Earl Cairns (1878)
  44. The Earl of Lytton (1880)
  45. The Earl of Selborne (1882)
    • William Palmer, 5th Earl of Selborne
  46. The Earl of Iddesleigh (1885)
    • John Northcote, 5th Earl of Iddesleigh
  47. The Earl of Cranbrook (1892)
  48. The Earl of Cromer (1901)
    • Evelyn Baring, 4th Earl of Cromer
  49. The Earl of Plymouth (1905)
    • Ivor Edward Other Windsor-Clive, 4th Earl of Plymouth
  50. The Earl of Liverpool (1905)
  51. The Earl Saint Aldwyn (1915)
    • Michael Hicks Beach, 3rd Earl Saint Aldwyn
  52. The Earl Beatty (1919)
  53. The Earl Haig (1919)
    • Alexander Haig, 3rd Earl Haig
  54. The Earl of Iveagh (1919)
  55. The Earl of Balfour (1922)
    • Roderick Balfour, 5th Earl of Balfour
  56. The Earl of Oxford and Asquith (1925)
  57. The Earl Jellicoe (1925)
    • Patrick Jellicoe, 3rd Earl Jellicoe
  58. The Earl of Inchcape (1929)
  59. The Earl Peel (1929) [4]
  60. The Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (1937)
  61. The Earl of Halifax (1944)
  62. The Earl of Gowrie (1945)
  63. The Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor (1945)
    • David Lloyd George, 4th Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor
  64. The Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1947)
  65. The Earl Alexander of Tunis (1952)
  66. The Earl of Swinton (1955)
    • Mark Cunliffe-Lister, 4th Earl of Swinton
  67. The Earl Attlee (1955)
  68. The Earl of Woolton (1956)
  69. The Earl of Snowdon (1961) [5]
  70. The Earl of Stockton (1984)
  71. The Earl of Wessex (1999) and Forfar (2019) [6]

Heirs apparent Edit

Peerage of England Edit

1. James Chetwynd-Talbot, Viscount Ingestre, eldest son of the Earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford

2. Edward Stanley, Lord Stanley, eldest son of the Earl of Derby

3. Reginald Herbert, Lord Herbert, eldest son of the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery

4. Jack Courtenay, Lord Courtenay, eldest son of the Earl of Devon

5. Alexander Howard, Viscount Andover, eldest son of the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire

6. Peregrine Feilding, Viscount Feilding, eldest son of the Earl of Denbigh and Desmond

7. Henry Bertie, Lord Norreys, eldest son of the Earl of Lindsey and Abingdon

8. Tobias Finch-Hatton, Viscount Maidstone, eldest son of the Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham

9. Luke Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, eldest son of the Earl of Sandwich

10. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley, eldest son of the Earl of Shaftesbury

11. William Bentinck, Viscount Woodstock, eldest son of the Earl of Portland

12. Augustus Keppel, Viscount Bury, eldest son of the Earl of Albemarle

13. George Child-Villiers, Viscount Villiers, eldest son of the Earl of Jersey

Peerage of Scotland Edit

14. Anthony Lindsay, Lord Balniel, eldest son of the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres

15. Harry Hay, Lord Hay, eldest son of the Earl of Erroll

16. Alexander Charles Robert Sutherland, Lord Strathnaver, eldest son of the Earl of Sutherland

17. John Douglas, Lord Aberdour, eldest son of the Earl of Morton

18. Harry Erskine, Lord Cardross, eldest son of the Earl of Buchan

19. Rhuridh Montgomerie, Lord Montgomerie, eldest son of the Earl of Eglinton and Winton

20. Alexander Sinclair, Lord Berriedale, eldest son of the Earl of Caithness

21. Jack Stuart, Lord Doune, eldest son of the Earl of Moray

22. Michael Douglas-Home, Lord Dunglass, eldest son of the Earl of Home

23. James Drummond, Viscount of Strathallan, eldest son of the Earl of Perth

24. Alexander Patrick Stewart, Lord Darlies, eldest son of the Earl of Galloway

25. John Maitland, Viscount Maitland, eldest son of the Earl of Lauderdale

26. William Lindesay-Bethume, Viscount Garnock, eldest son of the Earl of Lindsay

27. William Hay, Viscount Dupplin, eldest son of the Earl of Kinnoull

28. Charles Bruce, Lord Bruce, eldest son of the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine

29. Richard Charteris, Lord Elcho, eldest son of the Earl of Wemyss and March

30. Simon Ramsay, Lord Ramsay, eldest son of the Earl of Dalhousie

31. Davis Ogilvy, Lord Ogilvy, eldest son of the Earl of Airlie

32. James Grant of Rothiemurchus, Lord Huntingtower, eldest son of the Earl of Dysart

33. John Douglas-Hamilton, Lord Daer, eldest son of the Earl of Selkirk

34. Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn, Lord Scrymgeour, eldest son of the Earl of Dundee

35. David Hope-Johnstone, Lord Johnstone, eldest son of the Earl of Annandale and Hartfell

36. Archibald Cochrane, Lord Cochrane, eldest son of the Earl of Dundonald

37. Tristan Keith, Lord Inverurie, eldest son of the Earl of Kintore

38. Oliver St John, Viscount Kirkwall, eldest son of the Earl of Orkney

39. James Studley, Viscount Reidhaven, eldest son of the Earl of Seafield

40. John Dalrymple, Viscount Dalrymple, eldest son of the Earl of Stair

41. Harry Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, eldest son of the Earl of Rosebery and Midlothian

42. David Boyle, Viscount of Kelburn, eldest son of the Earl of Glasgow

Peerage of Great Britain Edit

44. William Shirley, Viscount Tamworth, eldest son of the Earl Ferrers

45. James Finch-Knightley, Lord Guernsey, eldest son of the Earl of Aylesford

46. Edward Waldegrave, Viscount Chewton, eldest son of the Earl Waldegrave

47. William Stanhope, Viscount Petersham, eldest son of the Earl of Harrington

48. Oliver Wallop, Viscount Lymington, eldest son of the Earl of Portsmouth

49. Charles Greville, Lord Brooke, eldest son of the Earl of Warwick

50. Frederick North, Lord North, eldest son of the Earl of Guilford

51. Philip Yorke, Viscount Royston, eldest son of the Earl of Hardwick

52. Simon Fox-Strangways, Lord Stavordale, eldest son of the Earl of Ilchester

54. Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie, Viscount Folkstone, eldest son of the Earl of Radnor

56. Benjamin Bathurst, Lord Apsley, eldest son of the Earl Bathurst

57. Edward Villiers, Lord Hyde, eldest son of the Earl of Clarendon

58. William Murray, Viscount Stormont, eldest son of the Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield

59. William Herbert, Lord Porchester, eldest son of the Earl of Carnarvon

60. George Cadogan, Viscount Chelsea, eldest son of the Earl Cadogan

61. James Harris, Viscount FitzHarris, eldest son of the Earl of Malmesbury

Peerage of Ireland Edit

62. Jonathan Boyle, Viscount Dungarvan, eldest son of the Earl of Cork and Orrery

63. Sean Nugent, Lord Delvin, eldest son of the Earl of Westmeath

64. Anthony Brabazon, Lord Ardee, eldest son of the Earl of Meath

65. Benjamin Moore, Viscount Moore, eldest son of the Earl of Drogheda

66. Jonathan Forbes, Viscount Forbes, eldest son of the Earl of Granard

67. Ivo Bligh, Lord Clifton, eldest son of the Earl of Darnley

68. Frederick Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon, eldest son of the Earl of Bessborough

69. James Stopford, Viscount Stopford, eldest son of the Earl of Courtown

70. John Savile, Viscount Pollington, eldest son of the Earl of Mexborough

71. Charles King-Tenison, Viscount Kingsborough, eldest son of the Earl of Kingston

72. Shane Jocelyn, Viscount Jocelyn, eldest son of the Earl of Roden

73. John Meade, Lord Gillford, eldest son of the Earl of Clanwilliam

74. Randal McDonnell, Viscount Dunluce, eldest son of the Earl of Antrim

75. Edward Pakenham, Lord Silchester, eldest son of the Earl of Longford

76. Charles Dawson-Damer, Viscount Carlow, eldest son of the Earl of Portarlington

77. Richard Bourke, Lord Naas, eldest son of the Earl of Mayo

78. Michael Annesley, Viscount Glerawly, eldest son of the Earl Annesley

79. John Lowry-Corry, Viscount Corry, eldest son of the Earl Belmore

80. Andrew Stuart, Viscount Stuart, eldest son of the Earl Castle Stewart

81. John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale, eldest son of the Earl of Donoughmore

82. Frederick Alexander, Viscount Alexander, eldest son of the Earl of Caledon

Peerage of the United Kingdom (also includes heirs apparent for Irish peerages created after 1800) Edit

83. Jamie St Clair-Erskine, Lord Loughborough, eldest son of the Earl of Rosslyn

84. David Marsham, Viscount Marsham, eldest son of the Earl of Romney

85. Julian Grosvenor, Viscount Grey de Wilton, eldest son of the Earl of Wilton

86. Felix Pery, Viscount Glentworth, eldest son of the Earl of Limerick

87. Jonathan Herbert, Viscount Clive, eldest son of the Earl of Powis

88. Thomas Nelson, Viscount Merton, eldest son of the Earl Nelson

89. Lawrence Parsons, Lord Oxmantown, eldest son of the Earl of Rosse (Peerage of Ireland)

90. Arthur Agar, Viscount Somerton, eldest son of the Earl of Normanton (Peerage of Ireland)

91. Alexander Grey, Viscount Howick, eldest son of the Earl Grey

92. Dudley Ryder, Viscount Sandon, eldest son of the Earl of Harrowby

93. Alexander Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles, eldest son of the Earl of Harewood

94. Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Viscount Melgund, eldest son of the Earl of Minto

95. Alan Cathcart, Lord Greenock, eldest son of the Earl of Cathcart

96. James Grimston, Viscount Grimston, eldest son of the Earl of Verulam

97. Alexander Bridgeman, Viscount Newport, eldest son of the Earl of Bradford

98. John Scott, Viscount Encombe, eldest son of the Earl of Eldon

99. Thomas Curzon, Viscount Curzon, eldest son of the Earl Howe

100. Robert Rous, Viscount Dunwich, eldest son of the Earl of Stradbroke

101. Robert Needham, Viscount Newry and Mourne, eldest son of the Earl of Kilmorey (Peerage of Ireland)

102. James Campbell, Viscount Emlyn, eldest son of the Earl Cawdor

103. Adam Knox, Viscount Northland, eldest son of the Earl of Ranfurly (Peerage of Ireland)

104. Thomas Anson, Viscount Anson, eldest son of the Earl of Lichfield

105. Frederick Lambton, Viscount Lambton, eldest son of the Earl of Durham

106. Granville Leveson-Gower, Lord Leveson, eldest son of the Earl Granville

107. Edward Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham, eldest son of the Earl of Effingham

108. James Moreton, Lord Moreton, eldest son of the Earl of Ducie

109. George Pelham, Lord Worsley, eldest son of the Earl of Yarborough

110. Edward Coke, Viscount Coke, eldest son of the Earl of Leicester

111. Henry Noel, Viscount Campden, eldest son of the Earl of Gainsborough

112. Samuel Byng, Viscount Enfield, eldest son of the Earl of Strafford

113. Henry Wellesley, Viscount Dangan, eldest son of the Earl Cowley

114. Colin Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbat, eldest son of the Earl of Cromartie

115. David Wodehouse, Lord Wodehouse, eldest son of the Earl of Kimberley

116. Reed Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, Viscount Carlton, eldest son of the Earl of Wharncliffe

117. Hugh Cairns, Viscount Garmoyle, eldest son of the Earl Cairns

118. Philip Lytton, Viscount Knebworth, eldest son of the Earl of Lytton

119. Alexander Palmer, Viscount Wolmer, eldest son of the Earl of Selborne

120. Thomas Northcote, Viscount St Cyres, eldest son of the Earl of Iddesleigh

121. John Gathorne-Hardy, Lord Medway, eldest son of the Earl of Cranbrook

122. Alexander Baring, Viscount Errington, eldest son of the Earl of Cromer

123. Robert Other Ivor Windsor-Clive, Viscount Windsor, eldest son of the Earl of Plymouth

124. Luke Foljambe, Viscount Hawkesbury, eldest son of the Earl of Liverpool

125. Sean Beatty, Viscount Borodale, eldest son of the Earl Beatty

126. Arthur Guinness, Viscount Elveden, eldest son of the Earl of Iveagh

127. Mark Asquith, Viscount Asquith, eldest son of the Earl of Oxford and Asquith

128. Fergus Mackay, Viscount Glenapp, eldest son of the Earl of Inchcape

129. Ashton Peel, Viscount Clanfield, eldest son of the Earl Peel

130. Benedict Bewdley, Viscount Corvedale, eldest son of the Earl Baldwin of Bewdley

131. James Wood, Lord Irwin, eldest son of the Earl of Halifax

132. Brer Ruthven, Viscount Ruthven of Canberra, eldest son of the Earl of Gowrie

133. William Lloyd George, Viscount Gwynedd, eldest son of the Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor

134. Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne, eldest son of the Earl Mountbatten of Burma

135. William Cunliffe-Lister, Lord Masham, eldest son of the Earl of Swinton

136. Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, eldest son of the Earl of Snowdon

137. Daniel Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, eldest son of the Earl of Stockton

138. James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn, eldest son of the Earl of Wessex

6 Fun Facts about the Sandwich

November 3 rd is National Sandwich Day and we can’t think of anything else we would rather celebrate. When it comes to lunch, you simply can’t beat a sandwich. What other menu option do we have that is easy enough to make that most kids can make their own, portable enough to take just about anywhere, and flexible enough to enable everyone to have exactly what they want? It is easy to see why the sandwich is so synonymous with lunch! Get in the spirit for National Sandwich Day with these fun facts and ready-to-make recipes featuring the sandwich.

1. Ever wonder where the sandwich got its name?

It is named after the man credited with creating the first sandwich, John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Legend has it that he was unwilling to free up both hands during a 24 hour gambling event in order to eat. Instead, he asked his servant to put the meat from his meal between two slices of bread so he could hold it in one hand and continue gambling. Ease, convenience, and portability right from the start!

2. Do you know what the most popular sandwich in America is?

If you guessed peanut butter and jelly, you would be close since on average, we each will have eaten about 1,500 PB&Js by the time we graduate from high school. The most popular sandwich is the plain, ordinary ham sandwich followed by second place finisher the BLT.

3. How many sandwiches do Americans eat every day?

It might seem strange, but Americans eat more than 300 million sandwiches each and every day. This is an amazing statistic since there are slightly more than 300 million Americans and not everyone eats a sandwich everyday!

4. What sandwich helped keep Americans fed during the Great Depression?

With the price of peanut butter today, you may not believe it, but the PB&J offered a lot of nutrition for a low cost. This was due in part to two crucial advances in food delivery, the development of the process for making peanut butter and the adoption of the process for pre-slicing and packaging bread. These two advances made the necessary ingredients readily available at a reasonable cost just in time to help feed the families struggling through the depression.

5. Why do we call sandwiches served on oblong rolls subs?

You might think it is because the rolls themselves are shaped kind of like submarines but that is not where the name comes from. Legend has it that during World War II, a deli in New London, Connecticut got an order for 500 hero sandwiches from a local Navy submarine base. As a result, the employees of the deli started referring to the hero as a “sub”. The name stuck and in most parts of the country you are more likely to see subs on the menu than heros.

6. What world records are related to sandwiches?

There are several world records tracked by Guinness related to the sandwich. The most expensive sandwich ever sold was a grilled toast sandwich that seemed to have an image of the Virgin Mary on the toasted bread which sold for $28,000 in 2004. The longest sandwich, created in Italy in 2004 was 2081 ft. The largest sandwich ever made weighed 5,440 lbs. The year, the record for the most sandwiches being made simultaneously was set in New York City by Subway restaurants who had 254 people making sandwiches at the same time.

Making up your family’s favorite sandwiches is a great way to celebrate National Sandwich Day. Don’t have a favorite sandwich? Try one of ours!

The History Of American White Bread Is Anything But Bland

From a scapegoat for the "sapping" of the "white race," to a symbol of modern engineering, to a target of the counterculture movement: White bread's been a social lightning rod time and again. iStockphoto hide caption

From a scapegoat for the "sapping" of the "white race," to a symbol of modern engineering, to a target of the counterculture movement: White bread's been a social lightning rod time and again.

Editor's note: Today is National Sandwich Day. To mark the occasion, we bring you this story from our archives. It was originally published in 2012.

White bread, like vanilla, is one of those foods that have become a metaphor for blandness. But it wasn't always that way.

Aaron Bobrow-Strain, an associate professor of food politics at Whitman College, tells Weekend Edition's Rachel Martin that white bread was a deeply contentious food — from the early 1900s ideas of "racial purity" up to the countercultural revolution of the 1960s. He documents that cultural legacy in his book, White Bread: A Social History of the Store-Bought Loaf.

White bread first became a social lightning rod with the Pure Foods movement of the late 1800s. Bobrow-Strain says well-meaning reformers were concerned about a host of legitimate food safety issues, and their activism led directly to many of today's food safety laws.

A Social History Of The Store-Bought Loaf

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But food purity ideals bled into the social realm in the form of what Bobrow-Strain calls "healthism" — the idea that "perfect bodily health was an outward manifestation of inward genetic fitness."

One proponent of healthism was Bernarr Macfadden, whom Bobrow-Strain calls "the original strong man food guru in a leopard-skin tunic." Macfadden believed that "white bread was sapping the vitality of the white race, threatening white racial superiority," Bobrow-Strain says.

In the 1920s, white bread became a symbol of industrialization and modernity, as companies like Tip Top and Wonder Bread brought factory automation to bread-making. The invention of sliced bread, allegedly in Chillicothe, Mo., in 1928, was "really the culmination of a long process in which bread was engineered and designed to look like a streamlined wonder, like an edible piece of modern art," Bobrow-Strain says.

At the same time, the '20s and '30s saw a backlash against white bread, and a revival of Macfadden's idea that whole wheat bread was imbued with moral as well as dietary fiber. And another wave of criticism came in the 1960s.

The counterculture movement "took up white bread as an emblem of everything that was wrong with America. It was plastic, corporate, stale," Bobrow-Strain says. Eating handmade, whole wheat bread became "an edible act of rebellion, a way of challenging The Man."

These days, of course, artisanal breads are a common sight at supermarkets. "We see bread going from a kind of manifestation of grass-roots food activism to being a high-end, niche product," Bobrow-Strain says.

The Salt

Earl Of Sandwich Blended Frappes Long Before Starbucks

Food reformers could learn a thing or two from these decades-long bread battles. Bobrow-Strain says focusing on individual food choices creates divisive in-groups and out-groups, defined by who makes the supposedly "right" food choices. And activists often overlook the root causes of problems in the food system.

Like, for instance, the economy. It's hard to pay twice as much for artisanal bread when you're strapped for cash.

And some foods are just better with white bread, he says, whether it's a simple grilled cheese or something fancier.

"I made a sandwich that had garlicky braised kale with Manchego cheese, a fried egg, and I did it on grilled Wonder Bread," Bobrow-Strain says. "It was fabulous."

Durham University’s Castle Theatre Company presents one of Shakespeare’s most charming comedies: All’s Well at Ends Well. A fairy-tale story of true love finding a way, featuring colourful characters and a hilarious sub-plot, this is the tale of a heroine who tries to secure her own happy ending.

Low-born Helena is madly in love with the noble Count Bertram, but he won’t take a second look at her. When she saves the King of France’s life, he oers Helena anything she desires in return – she asks for Bertram’s hand in marriage. Horrified, Bertram flees to fight in the war, and refuses to love Helena until she can take the ring from his finger. Meanwhile, Bertram’s boastful friend Parolles is tricked by his fellow soldiers, who have had enough of his behaviour. Can Helena fulfil Bertram’s demands and persuade him to love her after all?

For over three decades, Castle Theatre Company has taken its annual summer Shakespeare tour around the south of England and the USA, performing classic comedies on the lawns of stately homes, gardens and abbeys. Renowned for its high standard of performance, Castle Theatre Company promises fantastic entertainment for audiences of all ages. Bring a picnic and enjoy an afternoon of riotous Shakespearean fun!

Who Invented the Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich?

The Earl of Sandwich is credited with inventing the sandwich because he wanted to eat his meal with one hand during a 24-hour gambling event and instructed his servant to put his meat between two slices of bread. But what many may not know, is how an American classic sandwich&mdashthe iconic peanut butter and jelly sandwich&mdashcame to be. If the Earl of Sandwich invented the sandwich, who invented the PB&J?

The story begins with the three essentials parts of the PB&J&mdashpeanut butter, jelly and bread. First, let&rsquos start with the bread, which is, of course, an ancient food that has been around for tens of thousands of years.

The significance of the bread component in the PB&J sandwich is the invention of pre-sliced bread in the early 1900s. Otto Frederick Rohwedder invented a bread slicer but bakers were not interested because they thought no one would want their bread pre-sliced. Rohwedder kept refining his invention and changing things until it was ready to use in bakeries. He advertised the machine as &ldquothe greatest step forward in baking since bread was wrapped.&rdquo Later, the slogan evolved into &ldquothe greatest thing since sliced bread.&rdquo

Sliced bread proliferated. Soon people were looking for spreads to use with this newfound wonder food.

Next, let&rsquos look at jelly which is another food that has been around for a long time. In the case of the quintessential American PB&J sandwich, the most important person in this part of the story is a man named Paul Welch. In 1917, Welch secured a patent for pureeing grapes and turning them into jelly. He developed and advertised Grapelade (rhymes with marmalade) from Concord grapes&mdashthis was popular with America&rsquos troops in WWI. When soldiers came home after the war, it was popular to spread Grapelade on bread.

Finally, there&rsquos the peanut butter. Contrary to popular belief, peanut butter was not invented by Dr. George Washington Carver. But he is crediting with advancing the peanut crop in the South in the early 1900s and published his &ldquo300 Uses for Peanuts,&rdquo which included a peanut paste.

The forerunner of the peanut butter we know today was first brought to light sometime during the 1880s when a St. Louis physician, Dr. Ambrose Straub, made a peanut paste for geriatric patients who had trouble swallowing, or had bad teeth. Around the same time, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (same as the cereal) was the first to patent a process for manufacturing peanut butter. Peanut butter was first introduced at the 1893 Chicago World Fair. In 1904 Dr. Straub got a food company to develop the peanut spread and they took it to the St. Louis World Fair where it became so popular, grocery stores began ordering it.

Around the same time, peanut butter appeared in upscale tea rooms in New York City and was considered a delicacy. On the menu of Vanity Fair Tea Room was peanut butter with watercress. Other tea rooms featured peanut butter and pimento sandwich and peanut butter on toast triangles with soda crackers.

In 1901, the first peanut butter and jelly sandwich recipe appeared in the Boston Cooking School Magazine of Culinary Science and Domestic Economics written by Julia Davis Chandler. She said to use currant or crab-apple jelly and called the combination delicious and as far as she knew, original.

Still, the peanut butter and jelly sandwich was an exclusive food, and its popularity among the masses was yet to come. As Grapelade and pre-sliced bread became popular, another breakthrough happened with peanut butter&mdashcommercial brands found a way to create creamier peanut butter that didn&rsquot stick to the roof of the mouth so easily. And during the Great Depression of the 1930s, families discovered peanut butter provided a satisfying, high protein, less expensive meal.

But the major event that took the peanut butter and jelly sandwich over the top in popularity was WWII.

Peanut butter and jelly were on the U.S. Military ration menus in World War II. Peanut butter was a high-protein, shelf-stable ingredient and easily portable on long marches. Grapelade had already accompanied soldiers in the first world war and added a sweetness to the sandwich. With pre-sliced bread so easy to use, the natural inclination was to combine these three items, and before long the good ol&rsquo PB&J was a part of the American soldier&rsquos life.

When soldiers came home from the war, peanut butter and jelly sales soared. Kids loved it because it tastes great, parents loved how easy it was to make and how kids could make it themselves with pre-sliced bread. Many families and college students on a budget relied on PB&J.

So, the story of the peanut butter and jelly sandwich is the story of three essential ingredients all of which have been around for a long time, joining together to give us America&rsquos favorite and enduring sandwich.

Watch the video: A brief history of the humble sandwich. Episode 5. BBC Ideas