How do I find the sources which determined the year of the fall of Babylon?

How do I find the sources which determined the year of the fall of Babylon?



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I'm really asking a general question about the study of history. Allegedly, the Babylonian Empire fell to the Persians under Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. All articles regarding this event simply take it for granted as an established fact. How would I go about finding the precise sources and reasoning that cause historians to generally agree on historical facts, such as Babylonia succumbing to the Persians in 539BCE?


One way to go about this type of research is to simply dig deeper, one step at the time: review the bibliography of the articles you've run into, and read the citations of potential interest. Rinse and repeat until you finally locate one or more articles that argue about the precise date - historians aren't the type of scholars who take ancient texts at face value, so you'll necessarily run into such articles if you dig deep enough.

A shortcut for the above is to head to Google scholar directly, enter something like "Fall of Babylon date", and hit Search. Doing so will reveal a heap of articles that argue about the date and how it was arrived at (i.e. considerations such as astronomy, other events that were occurring at the same time documented in this or that source, and so forth).

The shortcut method might require a bit of digging deeper too, but it'll often be faster. This article from the first page of the above-mentioned Google Scholar results, for instance, includes a tasty looking citation in footnote 7. The book is out of print but you can download it from U Chicago:

R. A. Parker and W. H. Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology 626 B.C.-A.D. 75 (Providence: Brown U, 1956), 29.


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Rosh Hashanah 101

Rosh Hashanah FAQ: All About the Jewish New Year

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The effort to strike a balance between a particularistic loyalty to Jewish religion and nationhood and a more universalistic commitment to the human community played itself out in the struggle to set a date for the beginning of the Jewish calendar year. The two possibilities were Nisan, the month of Passover, and Tishrei, the month of what is now known as the festival of Rosh Hashanah.

In the Torah, the beginning of the year was clearly set at the first of Nisan, in the context of a description of the first Passover. &ldquoThe Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: This month shall mark for you the beginning of the months it shall be the first of the months of the year for you&rdquo (Exodus 12:1-2). This new year celebrated the creation of the Jewish nation through the redemption of the Israelites from Egypt. Nisan, as the first of the months, coincided with the beginning of Jewish national history.

But it is surprising that the Torah made no mention of a new year at 1 Tishrei, which today is so central to the Jewish religious experience. The Torah&rsquos reference to 1 Tishrei is sparse altogether, describing a holiday characterized primarily by the blowing of a shofar. &ldquoIn the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall observe complete rest, a sacred occasion commemorated with loud blasts. You shall not work at your occupations, and you shall bring an offering by fire to the Lord.&rdquo The name &ldquoRosh Hashanah&rdquo is not mentioned, nor is there a reference to its function as a day of judgment and anniversary of the world&rsquos creation.

Yet by the period of the Mishnah at the beginning of the second century, the outlines of today&rsquos Rosh Hashanah holiday are clear and discussions about the prayers of Rosh Hashanah appear as early as the teachings of the schools of Hillel and Shammai, which date to the first century CE.

Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 1:1 specifically defines Rosh Hashanah&rsquos &ldquonew year&rdquo status. &ldquoThe first of Tishrei is the beginning of the year [rosh hashanah] for years, sabbatical cycles, and the jubilee.&rdquo Although the functions of this new year relate primarily to the agricultural cycle and the beginning of a new harvest year, the Mishnah also begins to assign to it conceptual and theological meaning.

&ldquoOn Rosh Hashanah all human beings pass before Him as troops, as it is said: The Lord looks down from heaven He sees all mankind. From His dwelling place He gazes on all the inhabitants of the earth? He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings. (Psalms 33:13-15)&rdquo (M. Rosh Hashanah 1.2)

Sometime between the Torah and the codification of the Mishnah, the autumn new year gained ascendance, now transformed into a major celebration, and the Nisan new year was left as a marker of the months and festivals in the calendar year. Although theories abound about the causes of this transition, the mechanics are lost in the web of historical change. The talmudic rabbis analyze the text of the Bible as they argue about when the new year should began, yet different sets of verses yield different answers. Historians cite evidence from the ancient Near East, looking at the new years celebrated by neighboring peoples, but nothing is conclusive. Others look to archeology for support. But the truth remains murky.

Some ancient Semitic peoples considered the year to begin around the autumn harvest and the beginning of the rainy season, which both signified the start of a new agricultural year. Although the Torah never explicitly refers to an autumn new year, some scholars see in the Torah&rsquos apparent timing of the fall harvest festival (Sukkot) a small hint of a possible fall new year. According to Exodus 23:26, the Feast of the Harvest, which closely follows Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, occurs, b&rsquotzayt ha-shanah, at the going out of the year, signifying the close of one agricultural year and the beginning of the next. Similarly in Exodus 34:22, the Feast of the Ingathering is said to occur t&rsquokufat hashanah, &ldquoat the turn of the year.&rdquo Further evidence of the fall as the beginning of the agricultural year in Palestine is a calendar from the 10th century BCE found at Tel Gezer, which begins with the two Months of the Ingathering.

Scholars looking for biblical precursors of today&rsquos full-blown Rosh Hashanah holiday also look to the text of Nehemiah 8:1-8, although it never refers to a new year celebration. Rather, it describes Ezra reading the book of the law before the people on the first day of the seventh month. Some wonder, given this accumulation of hints about the importance of 1 Tishrei, whether this day was a new year in biblical times and the Torah &ldquocovered it up&rdquo because the pagan connotations of the day were too strong to acknowledge it as a Jewish new year.

Other scholars, however, believe that the existence of pagan new year celebrations influenced the timing of the Nisan and Tishrei new years, yet the evidence is contradictory. The Akitu festival that celebrated the Babylonian and Sumerian New Years generally occurred in the spring, although there is some evidence of autumnal Akitu festivals. H. Tadmor argued that in the biblical period, Nisan was the new year in the kingdom of Judea while Tishrei was new year in the northern kingdom of Israel. In the Qumran literature, Nisan is always the new year.

According to Yehezkel Kaufmann, some scholars claim the autumn festival described in the Torah to be a new year &ldquoon the basis of its supposed correspondence to the Babylonian new year, in which the myth of the creation and ancient Babylonian god Marduk&rsquos battle with Tiamat play a central part.&rdquo These scholars envisioned a yearly dramatization of the battle of the Israelite God with Tiamat and his &ldquosubsequent enthronement as universal king.&rdquo

Giving further credence to this view are a series of psalms that focus on God&rsquos kingship (47, 93-100, 149, etc.), which were thought to be part of this new year ritual. Recurring themes in these psalms reflect ideas important in the rabbinically created holiday of Rosh Hashanah: God as creator, God as king, and God as judge. Several of the psalms also allude to the sounding of the shofar.

Kaufmann, however, does not accept this explanation, calling it &ldquoone of the most remarkable products of the creative imagination of modern biblical scholarship.&rdquo Kaufmann sees no biblical evidence of a battle between God and any Babylonian deity, and he maintains that the enthronement psalms focus on God&rsquos kingship over creation, not a victory over a divine enemy.

Moving from the theories of Bible scholars to the interpretations of Jewish commentators, we see an acknowledgement of the existence of the two new years, Nisan and Tishrei, along with attempts to derive meaning from this doubling. Because Rosh Hashanah occurs at the beginning of the seventh month, counting from Nisan, Nachmanides (Ramban), a 13th-century commentator, tied the two together by positing that the very process of counting tied Rosh Hashanah to the redemption from Egypt. This, suggests Ramban, is similar to the tie between the weekday and Shabbat that is also accomplished by counting:

Just as we remember the Sabbath day by counting according to the first day of the Shabbat cycle, the second day of the Shabbat cycle [in Hebrew, the weekdays do not have names, they are numbered in relation to the coming Shabbat], as I will explain below, so we remember the Exodus from Egypt by counting the first month, and the second and third month from our redemption. For this is not the enumeration that we apply to the year, for the beginning of our years is in Tishrei, as it is written (Exodus 34:22), &ldquothe Festival of gathering, at the year-season,&rdquo and it is written (Exodus 23:16), &ldquoat the going-out/changing of the year.&rdquo Therefore, when the month of Nisan is called &ldquofirst&rdquo and Tishrei &ldquoseventh,&rdquo the meaning is: the first from the redemption and the seventh therefrom. And this is the meaning of &ldquothe beginning-one let it be for you.&rdquo For it is not the beginning of the year, but the beginning for you, for it is thus-called in memory of our redemption.

Modern interpreters of Judaism also look for meaning in the existence of two new year festivals. Ismar Schorsch and others focus on the roles of the two new years as exemplars of the particularist/universalist balance in Judaism &mdash the relative weight Judaism gives to an inward focus on the Jewish people vs. an outward focus on all of humanity.

Schorsch points out that although R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua argued in the Babylonian Talmud&rsquos tractate Rosh Hashanah about whether Nisan or Tishri was more significant, they both accepted the existence of a calendar with more than a single new year. Both cite verses purporting to prove that a series of critical events took place in their favored month: the creation of the world, Israel&rsquos future redemption from exile, the birth and death of the patriarchs, conception of a child by the matriarchs, and Joseph&rsquos release from prison.

The reason, maintains Schorsch, was to give greater weight to either the nationalist or the universalist trend in Judaism. Because R. Yeshoshua saw national redemption as the fulcrum of Jewish history, he held with the Torah that Nisan was the first month. Nisan&rsquos role as the new year for Jewish kings as well as the anniversary of Jewish nationhood reflects Yeshoshua&rsquos national focus. With his more universal thrust, R. Eliezer supported Tishrei as the anniversary of the creation of Adam and hence of all humanity. Within the universalist compass of Tishrei, issues of sin and renewal applicable to all human beings were emphasized. The fact that Tishrei is the new year for counting of the reigns of gentile kings also reflects this worldly perspective.

By attributing different yet complementary roles to the new years of Nisan and Tishrei, teachers of Torah have helped integrate perspectives of world, nation, and individual within the Jewish religion.

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Leap Year 101

Rules for Determining a Leap Year

1. Most years that can be divided evenly by 4 are leap years.
(For example, 2016 divided by 4 = 504: Leap year!)

2. Exception: Century years are NOT leap years UNLESS they can be evenly divided by 400. (For example, 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but 1600 and 2000, which are divisible by 400, were.)

Related Links

2016 is a leap year, which means that it has 366 days instead of the usual 365 days that an ordinary year has. An extra day is added in a leap year?February 29 ?which is called an intercalary day or a leap day.

Why is a Leap Year Necessary?

Leap years are added to the calendar to keep it working properly. The 365 days of the annual calendar are meant to match up with the solar year. A solar year is the time it takes the Earth to complete its orbit around the Sun ? about one year. But the actual time it takes for the Earth to travel around the Sun is in fact a little longer than that?about 365 days (365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds, to be precise). So the calendar and the solar year don't completely match?the calendar year is a touch shorter than the solar year.

It may not seem like much of a difference, but after a few years those extra quarter days in the solar year begin to add up. After four years, for example, the four extra quarter days would make the calendar fall behind the solar year by about a day. Over the course of a century, the difference between the solar year and the calendar year would become 25 days! Instead of summer beginning in June, for example, it wouldn't start until nearly a month later, in July. As every kid looking forward to summer vacation knows?calendar or no calendar?that's way too late! So every four years a leap day is added to the calendar to allow it to catch up to the solar year.

A Quick History Lesson

The Egyptians were the first to come up with the idea of adding a leap day once every four years to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Later, the Romans adopted this solution for their calendar, and they became the first to designate February 29 as the leap day.

But Wait! It's Not Quite that Simple!

The math seems to work out beautifully when you add an extra day to the calendar every four years to compensate for the extra quarter of a day in the solar year. As we said earlier, however, the solar year is just about 365 days long, but not exactly! The exact length of a solar year is actually 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than 365 days. That means that even if you add a leap day every four years, the calendar would still overshoot the solar year by a little bit?11 minutes and 14 seconds per year. These minutes and seconds really start to add up: after 128 years, the calendar would gain an entire extra day. So, the leap year rule, "add a leap year every four years" was a good rule, but not good enough!

Calendar Correction, Part II

To rectify the situation, the creators of our calendar (the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582) decided to omit leap years three times every four hundred years. This would shorten the calendar every so often and rid it of the annual excess of 11 minutes and 14 seconds. So in addition to the rule that a leap year occurs every four years, a new rule was added: a century year is not a leap year unless it is evenly divisible by 400. This rule manages to eliminate three leap years every few hundred years.

It's Smooth Sailing for the Next 3,300 Years

This ingenious correction worked beautifully in bringing the calendar and the solar year in harmony, pretty much eliminating those pesky extra 11 minutes and 14 seconds. Now the calendar year and the solar year are just about a half a minute off. At that rate, it takes 3,300 years for the calendar year and solar year to diverge by a day.


How do I find the sources which determined the year of the fall of Babylon? - History

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  • The second is for graduate students. This is a new feature of the PLUS program starting with the 2006-07 academic year. Graduate students may borrow PLUS loans if their cost of attendance exceeds the aid they receive from all other sources, including the Federal Stafford Loan. The graduate student is the loan borrower and is obligated to repay the loan.

What is a Master Promissory Note (MPN) and how do I sign it?

A promissory note is a binding legal document you sign when you get a student loan. It lists the conditions under which you're borrowing and the terms under which you agree to pay back the loan. A Master Promissory Note can be viewed or completed at https://studentaid.gov. You must use your FSA ID to log in.

What is entrance counseling?

Before receiving a Direct Stafford Loan, borrowers must complete an entrance counseling session. This quick and easy interactive counseling session provides useful tips and tools to help you develop a budget for managing your educational expenses and helps you to understand your loan responsibilities. An entrance counseling can be viewed or completed at https://studentaid.gov. You must use your FSA ID to log in.

How much am I allowed to borrow each year in student loans?

The amount you can borrow each year from the Federal Stafford Loan program is based on the number of credits you have earned toward the degree you are pursuing as well as your dependency status. Please view Loan Limits for detailed information.

I declined loans in the beginning of the semester on Gulfline, can I change my mind?

Yes. If you would like to accept loans previously declined please submit a Loan Request Form to your financial aid officer.

What is an alternative loan? Why doesn't the Financial Aid Office at FGCU certify alternative loans?

How much will I have to repay if I accept student Loans?

Florida Bright Futures Scholarship

Do I have to fill out the FAFSA to get a Florida Bright Futures Scholarship?

A FAFSA is no longer required for the Bright Futures Scholarship Program.

I am graduating from high school mid-year and wish to be eligible to receive a Bright Futures award beginning in the spring term. What do I do?

Please view the Florida Student Scholarship & Grant Programs website for more information about Non-Traditional Students (home-educated, GED, out-of-state, mid-year). See chapter 1 of the Bright Futures Student Handbook.

What happens if I drop a course?

Students are required to repay the cost of any Bright Futures funded course dropped or withdrawn after the Add/Drop week ends. Repayment to the to Florida Gulf Coast University Cashier's office is required. An exception may be granted by the Registrar if an appeal is approved.

Is there a time limit I have to repay the cost of a dropped/withdrawn course?

It is in the student's best interest to repay the cost of the dropped/withdrawn hours as soon as possible as a HOLD will be placed on the student account until repayment is received. The student will be ineligible to access their student account and the award will not renew for any subsequent academic years until repayment or satisfactory arrangements to reimburse FGCU have been made.

What happens when I repay the cost of a dropped/withdrawn course?

When a student repays FGCU the cost of dropped/withdrawn hours, those hours are returned to that student's Bright Futures hours remaining for funding purposes. The student must successfully pass all funded classes drops are not part of the completion calculation as they are repaid.

What happens if I fail a class?

Students are required to successfully pass all funded classes. If you are at risk of failing a class, please stop by the Financial Aid office to find the best course of action to take so as to maintain eligibility for Bright Futures. You cannot make up failed classes in summer term. Dropping the class is usually the best course of action if at risk of failing.

What happens if my GPA is below the requirement?

Do I have to enroll full-time to receive Bright Futures funding?

No. A student may enroll part-time and receive Bright Futures funding. Six credits is the minimum required to receive funding. Students are required to successfully complete all funded credits.

How long and how many hours of funding are available for FAS and FMS recipients?

Please view the Florida Student Scholarship & Grant Programs website for more information about the length of the scholarship award (please see chapter 2 of the Bright Futures Student Handbook).

Will Bright Future fund my graduate courses?

I only have one class left to graduate since I am not half-time, can I still receive funding?

• has fewer than six total hours remaining on the scholarship. OR
• needs fewer than six hours to complete the first baccalaureate degree.

How many credits are needed annually to renew the scholarship?

You are not required to be full time to renew, only pass all funded classes fall and spring terms.

Does Bright Futures have an appeal process?

Yes, there is a separate appeal just for Bright Futures. The appeal is available to print on the Online Forms page of the Financial Aid & Scholarships website.

You will need to full explain your situation and provide documentation regarding your situation if possible. Transfer GPAs can be used to calculate your continued eligibility if necessary.

Florida Prepaid Program

If I am enrolled in the Florida Prepaid program, does that affect my eligibility for financial aid?

The value of your Florida Prepaid Account must be reported as an asset on the FAFSA. In the past, the benefits you received from the Florida Prepaid Program were counted as a direct reduction of your aid eligibility. In most cases, this new treatment is beneficial to students. If you are a dependent student, the value of the account should be reported by your parents as one of their assets on the FAFSA. If you are an independent student, you should report the value of the account as one of your assets on the FAFSA. If you don't know the value of the account, contact the Florida Prepaid program at (800) 552-GRAD (4723).

Do I need to bring my Florida Prepaid card to the Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships?

Students do not need to bring their Florida Prepaid card in order to activate their account. T he Office of the Bursar uses students' social security numbers to link to and bill their Florida Prepaid account.

How do I know how much Florida Prepaid is paying? What fees does my Florida Prepaid plan pay?

Please view Florida Prepaid College Plan for rates, tuition and local fee plan coverage.

What if I do not want to use my Florida Prepaid this semester?

If you do not wish to utilize your Florida Prepaid Plan then you must visit the Cashier's Office in McTarnaghan Hall. If you neglect to do this by the last day to pay fees, Florida Prepaid will be billed.

What is the Florida Prepaid Benefit Calculator?

The Florida Prepaid Benefit Calculator will help you estimate your out-of-pocket Tuition & Fee cost for a set number of credit hours.

Academic Issues Affecting Aid Eligibility

What will happen to my financial aid eligibility if I withdraw from all of my classes?

If you are receiving financial aid and you withdraw from all your classes, the university is required by U.S. Department of Education regulation to evaluate your record and determine how much financial aid you are eligible for, based on how long you were enrolled. Students who withdraw from all their classes may have to repay some or all of the aid they were awarded. Total withdrawal can also affect your eligibility for financial aid in subsequent semesters. You should see a financial aid representative to discuss your withdrawal plans.

What will happen to my financial aid eligibility if I withdraw from some, but not all of my classes?

The timing of your withdrawal and the number of classes you withdraw from can have a significant effect on your financial aid eligibility. If you are a loan borrower, it can affect your eligibility for loan payments that have not yet been disbursed and may affect your repayment date. You should see a financial aid representative to discuss your withdrawal plans.

I've been told that I have to be making satisfactory academic progress in order to receive financial aid. What does that mean?

The U.S. Department of Education requires that all colleges have a standard in place to insure that students who are receiving federal financial aid are making satisfactory academic progress towards earning their degree. The Financial Aid Office measures your progress at the end of each spring semester. If you are not, you can lose eligibility for financial aid in the subsequent year. Please view Satisfactory Academic Progress for detailed information.

Is there a limit on how long I can receive financial aid?

The U.S. Department of Education set various limits on different types of financial aid. Please click each topic below for detailed information:

Florida Bright Futures Scholarship recipients may visit the Florida Student Scholarship & Grant Programs website for more information about the length of the scholarship award (please see chapter 2 of the Bright Futures Student Handbook).

Cross-Enrollment

What is cross-enrollment? Can I take classes elsewhere and get financial aid for those classes?

Students are sometimes permitted to take classes at another college other than FGCU while they are enrolled at FGCU. To submit an application for cross-enrollment (transient), please visit Florida Virtual Campus .

Can I receive financial aid from FGCU and the Host Institution while cross-enrolled?

No, if you are receiving financial aid from FGCU, you cannot receive aid from the Host institution while cross-enrolled.

What happens if I don’t complete the classes at the Host Institution?

If you do not complete the classes at the Host Institution or make Satisfactory Academic Progress, you may be required to repay the aid disbursed based on this agreement.

Using Your Financial Aid to Pay For Your Costs

If I have enough financial aid to cover by bill, is my bill paid, or do I have to pay the bill myself and get reimbursed by the university?

You should check your record in Gulfline to determine whether you have enough financial aid to pay your bill and whether or not your aid has been applied toward the payment of your bill.

Can I use my financial aid to purchase the books I need for my classes?

Please view Financial Aid Advance Purchase Program for detailed information

Will my financial aid pay for my tuition at another college if I cross-enroll elsewhere?

As part of the cross-enrollment (transient) process through Florida Virtual Campus (FLVC), you are responsible for paying balances owed for transient courses as Financial Aid at FGCU will not disburse for transient courses until all paperwork in completed and processed.

Transfer Issues

I am transfer student from another school OR I am transferring to another school. How do I get my financial aid transferred?

Some, but not all financial aid can be transferred from one college to another. You should contact the Financial Aid Office at the college you are leaving as well as the Financial Aid Office of the college you will attend. You can find out from them what aid transfers and what aid does not transfer. You should inform them of your transfer plans and find out if there are any requirements you must fulfill as you transfer.

Financial Aid for Study Abroad

Is financial aid available for study abroad programs?

Financial aid is available for some study abroad programs. Financial aid eligibility for studying abroad is determined by the type of study abroad program you attend, as well as the type of financial aid you receive. Only students earning a degree at FGCU are eligible.

Please view Study Abroad Programs for detailed information.

CARES Act

Additional FAQs regarding eligibility and distribution of emergency financial aid grants can be found here – CARES Act.

Am I eligible for CARES Act emergency financial aid funds?

Applicants must meet general requirements for federal financial aid outlined by the CARES Act. While filing a FAFSA is not required, it will help expedite your eligibility for emergency financial aid grants. If you have not yet completed a 2019-2020 FAFSA, you may do so at Complete my FAFSA.

Eligibility requirements to receive financial aid grants under the CARES Act include but are not limited to the following:

  • Be enrolled or accepted for enrollment in a degree, certificate or other recognized educational credential (including a program of study abroad approved for credit by the eligible institution at which such student is enrolled)--that is, a regular student under 34 CFR 600.2)
  • Not be enrolled in elementary or secondary school and have a high school diploma or its recognized equivalent
  • Be maintaining satisfactory academic progress (SAP) if the student is a currently enrolled student
  • Not owe an overpayment (refund) on Title IV grants
  • Not be in default on a Title IV loan
  • Be a U.S citizen or national, a permanent resident, or an eligible noncitizen
  • Have returned any fraudulently obtained Title IV funds, if the student is convicted of or pled guilty or no contest to charges
  • Not have fraudulently received Title IV loans in excess of annual or aggregate limits
  • Have repaid any Title IV loan overpayment amounts in excess of annual or aggregate limits, if obtained inadvertently
  • Have his Selective Service registration verified (the Title IV aid ineligibility for failure to register is actually in the Selective Service Act §3811(f))
  • Have a valid SSN, except for residents of the Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Republic of Palau and
  • Not have a federal or state conviction for drug possession or sale, with certain time limitations.

What type of expenses are covered by the CARES Act funding?

CARES Act funding will cover expenses related to the disruption of campus operations due to coronavirus (including eligible expenses under a student’s cost of attendance, such as food, housing, course materials, technology, health care, and child care).

How can I apply for CARES Act emergency funds?

Students can apply by completing the FGCU CARES Act application.

If approved, how do I get the funds?

Signing up for direct deposit through Gulfline is the quickest and safest way to get funds from your FGCU account.
Steps to sign up for Direct Deposit.

If you choose not to receive the funds via direct deposit, then a paper check will be processed. Mailed checks will be sent to the most current address on file with the Registrar' Office. Please make sure that your address is current before a paper check is processed. You may update your address by submitting this form – Change of Address form.

How much can I get from the emergency funds?

Amounts vary and are dependent upon the request. Each student’s critical need, emergency, and circumstances are unique and will be evaluated accordingly. The maximum award amount will be $1,000.

Will these funds impact my financial aid?

Do I have to apply for Financial Aid to be eligible for emergency funds?

You do not have to apply for financial aid to be eligible for these funds.

Will I have to repay these emergency funds?

My program is 100% online, am I eligible?

Students who were enrolled exclusively in an online program on March 13, 2020, the date of the President’s Proclamation, “Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak, are not eligible for emergency financial aid grants.


Leap Years

Chinese Year (AH)Start DateLeap Year?
471725 янв 2020 г.Yes
471812 фев 2021 г.No
47191 фев 2022 г.No
472022 янв 2023 г.Yes
472110 фев 2024 г.No

The Chinese calendar features 12 months. However, an extra month is inserted in the calendar when a leap year occurs. Therefore, leap years in the Chinese calendar have 13 months, unlike leap years in the Gregorian calendar in which an extra day is included. A leap month is added to the Chinese calendar approximately every three years (7 times in 19 years). The name of the leap month is the same as the previous lunar month. A leap year in the Chinese calendar does not necessarily fall at the same time a leap year occurs in the Gregorian calendar.

One must calculate the number of New Moons between the 11th month in one year, which is the month with the December solstice, and the 11th month in the following year to figure out if a year is a leap year. The leap year must be inserted if there are 13 New Moons from the start of the 11th month in the first year to the start of the 11th month in the second year. At least one month does not contain a principal term (Zhongqi) in leap years. The solar term system has 12 principal terms to indicate the Sun's longitudes at every 30 degrees. The first month that does not have a principal term is determined as the leap month.


Frequently Asked Questions

We know funding your education can be overwhelming and we are here to help. Below are common financial aid questions. If you cannot find the answer to your question, contact us:

  • Chat with us from 9am – 12pm Monday – Friday on Uchat: www.skagit.edu/uchat
  • Call us from 10:30am – 4:30pm Monday – Thursday:
    • Mount Vernon Office: 360.416.7666
    • Whidbey Island Office: 360.679.5320

    REMOTE OPERATIONS UPDATE: Please note that while the college is in remote operations, our physical campuses remain closed. Staff are not working from the Financial Aid Office and are only available to assist by phone or via UChat, our instant chat platform. Thank you for your patience!

    Applying For Financial Aid

    Financial aid is money to help you pay your education expenses at a college, career school, or university. Funding can be through federal, state and school resources. There are three categories of financial aid:

    Grants – are awarded to students that have a demonstrated financial need as determined by the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Sometimes referred to as “gift” aid as you are not required to pay back funds you receive.

    Work-study – money earned through a job on campus while attending school

    Loans – Borrowed money that must be repaid with interest.

    The general eligibility requirements for financial aid:

    • Be a US citizen or eligible non-citizen
    • Be registered with the Selective Service (if required)
    • Be enrolled in an eligible program of study and are enrolled in eligible classes that lead to a degree or certificate offered by SVC that is at least one year in length.
    • Have a high school diploma, GED certificate.
    • Demonstrate financial need
    • Maintain satisfactory academic progress
    • Not be in default on any student loan or owe a repayment on any grant received at any institute of higher education.

    You can’t get financial aid if you don’t apply. Applying for financial aid is a multi-step process, but it all begins with the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) or Washington Application for State Financial Aid (WASFA) for Dreamers and DACA students. Jump on over to our Apply for Financial Aid site and start with the 1 st Step – Complete Your Application.

    You will also want to be sure that you have applied for admission to Skagit Valley College at this time. If you are a new student to Skagit Valley College and have not applied for admission, please note that your financial aid file will not be reviewed or processed until you have received confirmation of admission. To apply to SVC, please visit Getting Started and you are on your way. If you were enrolled previously at SVC, but have been away from the college for more than two years, you will also need to re-apply to SVC at Getting Started.

    The Federal School Code for Skagit Valley College is 003792. It will show the address for the Mount Vernon campus but applies to all campuses.

    YES! You must reapply for financial aid each year by completing the renewal FAFSA or WASFA online. Applications are available on October 1 st each year.

    During remote operations, Financial Aid Staff are available by phone appointment to assist with your application. Please call 360.416.7666 or find us on uChat to request assistance. We hope to continue on-campus assistance workshops once the college resumes on-ground operations.

    We encourage you to not procrastinate when applying for financial aid. Awards are made on a first come, first served basis. Apply early to be considered for maximum aid funding. Missed the deadline? Don’t worry you can still submit your FAFSA or WASFA and be considered for financial aid. Apply today!

    Priority Deadlines for application completion:

    If you missed a quarterly deadline, we will still process your late application, but it may not be reviewed until after the quarter begins. You may still receive financial aid if you qualify, but it may not be processed until after the quarter begins. You will need to plan ahead accordingly, to cover your initial educational expenses (such as tuition, fees, books, transportation), while you are waiting for your eligibility to be determined. If you are later awarded grant aid, it will be retroactive for the quarter(s) that you qualified. If you are pursuing Federal Direct Loans, you must be enrolled in a minimum of 6 credits required for your program, and you must have submitted your SVC Loan Application.

    Yes, if when you are filling out the FAFSA application you have answered “no” to all dependency status questions in step 3, by federal law you are required to include your parent information. If your parents do not provide their information on your application, you cannot be considered for aid.

    If you have special circumstances and can provide documentation of what occurred that severed the relationship with your parent(s), and you can provide documentation that you have no contact with your parent(s), contact the Financial Aid Office.

    Being considered an independent student is not merely a matter of being responsible for your own educational expenses. You must be able to answer YES to at least one of the following questions to be declared an independent student for the purposes of the FAFSA:

    • Will you be 24 years of age or older by December 31 of the award year?
    • Are you married as of the date you fill out the FAFSA?
    • Will you be working on a master’s or doctorate program (MA, MBA, DVM, PhD, EdD, etc) during the award year?
    • Are you currently serving on active duty in the US Armed Forces for purposes other than training?
    • Are you a veteran of the US Armed Forces?
    • Do you have children who will receive more than half of their support from you during the award year?
    • Do you have dependents (other than your children or spouse) who live with you and who receive more than half of their support from you, now and through the award year?
    • At any time since you turned age 13, were both your parents deceased, were you in foster care, or were you a dependent or ward of the court?
    • Are you or were you an emancipated minor as determined by a court in your state of legal residence?
    • Are you or were you in legal guardianship as determined by a court in your state of legal residence?
    • At any time on or after July 1, 2020, did your high school or school district homeless liaison determine that you were an unaccompanied youth who was homeless?
    • At any time on or after July 1, 2020, did the director of an emergency shelter or transitional housing program funded by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development determine that you were an unaccompanied youth who was homeless?
    • At any time on or after July 1, 2020, did the director of a runaway or homeless youth basic center or transitional living program determine that you were an unaccompanied youth who was homeless or were self-supporting and at risk of being homeless.

    If you are new to Skagit Valley College, you must be formally admitted to SVC before you can be awarded.

    You will also want to be sure that you have applied for admission to Skagit Valley College at this time. If you are a new student to Skagit Valley College and have not applied for admission, please note that your financial aid file will not be reviewed or processed until you have received confirmation of admission. To apply to SVC, please visit Getting Started and you are on your way. If you were enrolled previously at SVC, but have been away from the college for more than two years, you will also need to re-apply to SVC at Getting Started.

    Financial Aid Processing at Skagit Valley College

    You should receive an email from the FAFSA or WASFA in 2-3 business days after completing your application advising you it has been successfully processed.

    After receiving this email, it will be 4-6 business days for Skagit Valley College to upload your application into our database.

    You will receive a welcome letter from Skagit after we receive your FAFSA or WASFA. It will be sent to the email address you submitted with your FAFSA. Please be sure to read it carefully.

    If additional information is needed in order to process your financial aid application, you will receive a follow up email shortly after your welcome letter.

    • Via email to [email protected] through your MYSVC email. For directions on how to submit please visit our Forms & Resources help page.
    • Fax to 360.416.7888
    • by mail:
      Financial Aid Office
      Skagit Valley College
      2405 East College Way
      Mount Vernon, WA 98273-5899

    Due to our limited access to fax and mail because of closure, please note that faxing or mailing in your forms can delay processing 1-2 weeks. We recommend that you submit via email.

    The Financial Aid Portal allows you to check your financial aid status and awards online any time. Once your FAFSA or WASFA to Skagit Valley College has been received you will have access to the Portal. The Portal will show you any requests for additional documents required in order to complete your financial aid file. You can see if our office has received documents you submitted. Also, keep track of your financial aid, including your award, at any point through the year.

    When accessing the Portal:

    FAFSA Applicants:
    Your Username is your full 9-digit Social Security Number.
    Your Password is your 6-digit Date of Birth (MMDDYY)

    WASFA Applicants:
    Your Username is your 9-digit WASFA User ID.
    Your Password is your 6-digit Date of Birth (MMDDYY)

    Sign into the Financial Aid Portal and scroll down to the “Information We Need from You” section. You can download the required e-Forms by clicking on the arrow by the form.

    Go to Forms & Resources on the Financial Aid website. Scroll down and open up the 2020-2021 or 2021-2022 financial aid forms menu. All financial forms are listed there alphabetically and available for download.

    Your Expected Family Contribution (EFC) is generated using a formula mandated by the Department of Education, known as federal methodology. The formula uses the information you and your parent(s) provide on your financial aid application. The EFC is a measure of your/your family’s financial strength. Your EFC is not the amount of money you/your family will have to pay for college, nor is it the amount of money you will receive. The EFC is used to determine your demonstrated financial need.

    Financial Aid applications are processed on a first come, first served basis. Fall quarter is our peak processing time. If no additional information is needed in order to process your financial aid application just sit tight! We will review and award your financial aid as soon as possible. Notification will be sent via email, once the review is complete.

    Please keep in mind that only fully completed financial aid files will be process for awarding. Be sure you respond promptly to any requests for additional information.

    Remember you can also track the status of your financial aid through accessing the Financial Aid Portal.

    We don’t know your potential financial aid eligibility level until we have received and processed your FAFSA or WASFA. Your FAFSA or WASFA provides us with your EFC (Expected Family Contribution) and is a key factor in determining your financial need. Financial aid applications are evaluated and reviewed according to Expected Family Contribution, availability of funds, and the date your file is completed within the award cycles.

    If you met the quarterly deadline and other financial aid requirements based on your FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) or WASFA (Washington Application for State Financial Aid), and show satisfactory academic history, you may receive a Financial Aid hold. This will allow you to stay enrolled in your classes without payment as we process your financial aid.

    Males born before 1960 are not required to register with Selective Service and can submit documents to verify their birthdate. If you are male, and did not register with Selective Service, you will need to go online at www.sss.gov and submit documents to Selective Service to receive a Status Information Letter. If the letter states you were not required to register, you will need to bring this letter to the Financial Aid Office. If the letter states that you were required to register, you will need to submit the letter to the Financial Aid Office along with answers to questions stating the reason that you were unable to register. If you are a male that entered the USA after turning 26, you will need to bring documents to the Financial Aid Office verifying the date you entered the USA and your date of birth. If you are a transgender male, you will need to bring documentation that you were assigned the female sex at birth and not required to register with Selective Service.

    After Awarding of Financial Aid

    Yes, limited types of financial aid are available during the summer quarter. All students who are enrolled for Summer Quarter must complete the 2021-2022 Summer Enrollment Form, even those who are enrolled full-time (12+ credits). Without this form, the Financial Aid Office will not award you aid for Summer Quarter. Please submit your completed Summer Enrollment Form through your MySVC email to the Financial Aid Office: [email protected] . If funds remain after financial aid funds are applied to your tuition and fees, the earliest you can expect to receive your financial aid refund for Summer Quarter 2021 is the afternoon of Tuesday, July 6. Student Federal Direct Loan funds will likely come later.

    Go to your Financial Aid Portal and sign in. Scroll down to “MY AWARDS”. There you will be able to see a detailed listing of the aid and amounts you have been awarded for each quarter of the academic year.

    If you have signed up for direct deposit, and all of the criteria have been met, funds will be disbursed through BankMobile the afternoon of the first day of the quarter. Please bear in mind that it takes approximately 2-3 business days for the direct deposit to arrive in your personal bank account after aid has disbursed to your student account to pay tuition and fees.

    Your financial aid is split between quarters. If you are registered for the right amount of credits and all other eligibility requirements have been met, your financial aid will automatically pay into your student account and pay tuition before classes start.

    No, you must wait until the first day of the quarter when classes begin.

    No, by federal regulation, your financial aid can only pay for the classes you need to complete your program, or for prerequisites you must take before for required classes. You must choose a Program of Study to receive financial aid. Your program of study is the degree or certificate program you plan to work on while attending Skagit Valley College.

    If during your time at SVC you change your Program of Study you will want to work with your advisor and be sure to notify the Financial Aid Office. Instructions for Requesting A Change of Program.

    If you will not be attending full-time (12+ credits) in any given quarter while at Skagit Valley College, you will need to complete and submit a 20-21 Enrollment Revision form or 21-22 Enrollment Revision, depending upon the quarter, to the Financial Aid Office so that we can adjust your cost of attendance and award accordingly.

    Also, be aware that CCB course credits are not financial aid eligible and should not be included when determining how many credits you are enrolled in for financial aid. Example: You are registered for 12 credits total. 2 of the credits are for a CCB course. This means you are enrolled in 10 credits (3/4 time) only for financial aid and you would need to submit an Enrollment Revision form.

    Once your financial aid award has been made, we will first pay any balance due on your quarter registration if there is one. Then any remaining funds in your financial aid account for the quarter will be refunded to you directly through BankMobile. Be sure your account with BankMobile is set up to prevent delays in receiving the funds.

    You may be eligible to complete a Change of Circumstance Petition if you have experienced a significant change in income relative to the information provided on your financial aid application. Please note that in most cases, your circumstance must be a situation beyond your control. Electively quitting employment is generally not an allowable circumstance. Visit the Change of Circumstance webpage for more information.

    Financial aid funds only the courses that are required for completion of the degree or certificate program you are pursuing at Skagit Valley College. In addition to using financial aid to pay for the usual expenses such as tuition, fees and books, you can use it to help pay for housing, transportation, childcare, the purchase of a personal computer, educational supplies and more.

    Skagit Valley College partners with BankMobile, a third-party servicer, to disburse financial aid funds. Please note that BankMobile refers to financial aid disbursements as “refunds”.

    You will receive both email and postal mail correspondence from BankMobile. This will be mailed to the address you have on record with the SVC Enrollment Services Office. Please make sure that your mailing address is correct with Enrollment Services and notify the Financial Aid Office if it is currently incorrect.

    Postal mail from BankMobile Disbursements will include Refund Selection options in a green envelope. However, if you wish to expedite your refund selection, we are pleased to inform you that can now do so via the mySVC toolbox:

    1. Go to http://www.mysvc.skagit.edu/
    2. From the Student Toolbox, select Payments & Earnings
    3. Click on Financial Aid Refund
    4. Enter your Student ID (SID) number and PIN*
    5. Follow the prompts to select your refund preference

    *Note: Your SID and PIN are the same as what you use to log in to register, pay tuition, etc.

    Your options will include: deposit to another existing bank account (recommended), a paper check, or electronic deposit to BankMobile Vibe, an optional account. If you wish to select the optional BankMobile Vibe account, you should only do so if you are currently enrolled in classes in order to avoid fees and potential account cancellation. If you have a temporary social security number, such as those granted by DACA, you must select either the option of having your funds deposited to another existing bank account or a paper check.

    If you have excess funds, after tuition and fees are paid, those funds will be disbursed via the refund selection option you choose, assuming that you have taken care of all items required by the Financial Aid Office and have no disbursement holds on your academic record. Your quarterly disbursements released to BankMobile should be available no sooner than the first day of each quarter. Funds awarded after a quarter has begun are usually available 3 – 4 business days after you receive your award notification.

    Yes, you can! Moving forward after you receive your award notification, your cost of attendance and financial aid award are based on your actual enrollment level. If you will not be attending full-time in any given quarter while at Skagit Valley College, you will need to complete and submit a 20-21 Enrollment Revision or 21-22 Enrollment Revision form (depending upon the quarter) to the Financial Aid Office so that we can adjust your cost of attendance and award accordingly.

    Less 1/2 time

    You will receive an Award Letter via email to the email address you used in completing your FAFSA and WASFA. Also, you will be able to view your awards through the Financial Aid Portal.

    Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP)

    Financial aid programs are designed to help students successfully complete their degree or certificate programs in a timely manner. Federal and state financial aid regulations require schools to set minimum standards for satisfactory academic progress (SAP) and to hold students accountable for meeting the standards.

    This document outlines the requirements for financial aid satisfactory academic progress at Skagit Valley College and is subject to change. It is the student’s responsibility to read and understand the standards for satisfactory academic progress.

    As a recipient of financial aid you have certain rights and responsibilities. It is important that you read and understand the information, guidelines and policies of Financial Aid.

    We also encourage you to read these documents.

    Don’t hesitate to contact the Financial Aid Office with any questions or concerns you may have.

    First, don’t panic. We want to help you be successful at Skagit Valley College. We know that there are times when you may experience an unusual or extenuating circumstance that impacts your results in a quarter.

    We encourage you to read the SAP (Satisfactory Academic Progress) requirements for the guidelines as to when a student will be placed on financial aid “warning” or “suspension”. Students who are placed on suspension have their future financial aid awards suspended. You can be considered for reinstatement to financial aid by working with your advisor and submitting a completed Petition for Financial Aid Reinstatement.

    If you withdraw during the quarter, three things may occur:

    • Your eligibility for further aid may be canceled
    • You may have to repay aid you received for the quarter, depending on when you withdraw
    • You will be suspended from financial aid and need to submit a Petition for Reinstatement.

    We strongly encourage you to call the Financial Aid Office at 360.416.7666 before you withdraw to assure you are fully aware of the impact on your financial aid.

    Overall Attempts
    Students are allowed up to three total attempts to successfully complete a course required for their program of study. Students who need to repeat a course after three unsuccessful attempts (unsuccessful is defined as E, F, V, W, or Z) must submit the Petition for Reinstatement and explain what the unusual or extenuating circumstances has been for failing to pass the course, as well as a substantial, detailed plan for how they will ensure success in their next attempt. Funding for coursework beyond three unsuccessful attempts is not guaranteed.

    Previously Passed Courses
    Students are allowed to receive financial aid to repeat a previously passed course (previously passed is defined as D- or higher), only once, regardless of your program’s GPA/grade requirement. Students may only receive funding for repeat courses that are required for their program of study. Repeating elective or gray area courses will not be allowed, unless Skagit Valley College requires a better grade in order to complete your program. In these cases, only one attempt is eligible for financial aid.

    If you wish to retake a previously passed course, you will need to submit a Repeat Coursework form by the census date (3rd day of the quarter). Forms are available online.

    A reduction or elimination of financial aid eligibility may be required if it is determined that a student is repeating a previously passed course beyond the one allowable re-take and students may be billed if aid has already disbursed for ineligible repeated courses.

    This information is also available at theSatisfactory Academic Policy (SAP) guide.

    Student Loans

    No, if you wish to borrow Federal Direct loans while at Skagit Valley College, additional action is required.

    A separate online application for Federal Direct Loan funding is required. Applications for the 2021-2022 academic year will be available to students at the Financial Aid website beginning the first week of June, 2021. Please note that loan processing during peak periods can take 6-8 weeks, so you are encouraged to apply as soon as the application becomes available.

    With a Subsidized loan the federal government pays the interest for the loan while you are in school. With the Unsubsidized loan, the interest accrues while you are in school you are responsible for paying the amount that accrues wither while you are in school or when you enter repayment.

    You are responsible for repaying the principal balance of your student loans after you have completed your degree or cease to be enrolled on at least a half-time basis (half-time enrollment for most undergraduates is defined as 6 credit hours per semester). Most federal loans allow you a six-month grace period after you cease enrollment on at least a half-time basis before you have to begin repayment. Your lender will notify you when repayment is scheduled to begin. Be sure to keep your lender informed of any change in your permanent address so you will not miss this important communication.

    Yes, financial aid is money to help you pay your education expenses at a college, career school, or university and that includes student loans. Loans are borrowed money that must be repaid with interest.

    Once you have fully submitted your Direct Loan application, processing times can take 4-8 weeks depending on the time of year you are applying. For example, if you will be starting Fall quarter, and submit your application the beginning of July, you can expect to get your Direct Loan Award Notification sent to your SVC email by late August. Please keep in mind that only completed and fully processed Financial Aid files can have loan applications certified.

    Important: Subsidized and Unsubsidized Direct Loans both require the student:


    Chinese New Year

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    Chinese New Year, also called Lunar New Year, annual 15-day festival in China and Chinese communities around the world that begins with the new moon that occurs sometime between January 21 and February 20 according to Western calendars. Festivities last until the following full moon.

    The holiday is sometimes called the Lunar New Year because the dates of celebration follow the phases of the moon. Since the mid-1990s people in China have been given seven consecutive days off work during the Chinese New Year. This week of relaxation has been designated Spring Festival, a term that is sometimes used to refer to the Chinese New Year in general.

    The origins of the Chinese New Year are steeped in legend. One legend is that thousands of years ago a monster named Nian (“Year”) would attack villagers at the beginning of each new year. The monster was afraid of loud noises, bright lights, and the colour red, so those things were used to chase the beast away. Celebrations to usher out the old year and bring forth the luck and prosperity of the new one, therefore, often include firecrackers, fireworks, and red clothes and decorations. Young people are given money in colourful red envelopes. In addition, Chinese New Year is a time to feast and to visit family members. Many traditions of the season honour relatives who have died.

    Among other Chinese New Year traditions is the thorough cleaning of one’s home to rid the resident of any lingering bad luck. Some people prepare and enjoy special foods on certain days during the celebrations. The last event held during the Chinese New Year is called the Lantern Festival, during which people hang glowing lanterns in temples or carry them during a nighttime parade. Since the dragon is a Chinese symbol of good fortune, a dragon dance highlights festival celebrations in many areas. This procession involves a long, colourful dragon being carried through the streets by numerous dancers.


    Cougar Advantage

    What is the Cougar Advantage?

    The Cougar Advantage guarantees admission to the College of Charleston for SC resident students that graduate in the top 10% of their class and attend a public high school in the state of South Carolina. Additional information regarding Admissions qualifications can be found on http://admissions.cofc.edu/applyingtothecollege/freshmen/cougar-advantage/index.php.

    What is the Cougar Advantage Pledge and how do I qualify?

    The Cougar Advantage Pledge is for students that meet the Cougar Advantage qualifications above and are eligible to receive a federal Pell grant. For students that meet that criteria, we are guaranteeing that they will receive at minimum gift aid to cover full time tuition from a combination of state, federal, and institutional sources.

    What is considered gift aid?

    Gift aid is any funding that does not have to be repaid generally meaning grants and scholarships

    Is this a free ride scholarship?

    No. The Cougar Advantage Pledge only covers the cost of full time tuition. Students can apply for other sources of aid such as loans to help cover the cost of housing and applicable meal plans.

    Can I apply for Cougar Advantage Pledge if I gain residency after being accepted?

    No. Residency has to be established prior to high school graduation.

    If I lose my state scholarship will I remain eligible for the Cougar Advantage Pledge?

    No. In order to remain eligible for the Cougar Advantage Pledge in each subsequent year, a student must remain eligible for the federal Pell Grant each year and maintain eligibility for their state scholarship.

    If I lose eligibility for the Pell Grant or State Scholarship and regain eligibility at a later date would I regain eligibility for the Cougar Advantage Pledge?

    No. Students must maintain eligibility year to year. Students cannot regain eligibility once it has been lost.

    Will I still be eligible as a fifth year student?

    The Cougar Advantage Pledge is only available for up to a maximum of 8 semesters (4 years).

    Does my FAFSA have to be at the College of Charleston by March 1 st or just submitted to FAFSA?

    A valid FAFSA must be submitted and received by the College of Charleston no later than March 1 st .

    Am I eligible as a current student?

    This program is not available for current students.

    Does this apply to transfer and gap year students?

    This program is not available for transfer or gap year students. Students must be enrolling at the College of Charleston in the fall semester immediately following high school graduation.

    What if my FAFSA shows that I am not Federal Pell Grant eligible, but I have a change in my financial situation?

    If you are a Cougar Advantage student, have submitted your FAFSA to CofC by the March 1 st  date, and your family has experienced a change in your financial situation, a Parent Contribution Adjustment Request Form (PCAR) will need to be submitted to [email protected] no later than July 1 st  in order to be considered for the Cougar Advantage Pledge.


    Honors Christian Worldview: Topic 1 Quiz: GCU

    5. Right Thing to do: Procreate/create more atoms through repopulation, and follow your instincts (Believers of Egoism- Do whatever benefits and gives you pleasure, and Utilitarianism- Pleasure for many)

    2. Nature of the Universe: Chaotic and random (The universe is evil and meaningless)

    3. Human Nature: Animalistic, life is meaningless, based on self-fulfillment

    4. How do I Know?: You don't know anything at all. It's all in the eye of the beholder

    5. Right thing to do: Follow logic (eye of the beholder)

    2. Nature of the Universe: It is orderly and calculated, the harmony between God and the world/science is called "logos"

    3. Human Nature: There is a spark of logos within each human, and it is their destiny to follow the logos

    4. How do I Know?: Use logic/think things through logically

    5. Right Thing to do: Live according to what the stoic logic tells you to do, go with the flow and don't fight against the "current of problems" in life

    2. Nature of Universe: Matter is Maya (illusion), it isn't gonna help you find the truth in life, we all come from and come back to the same thing through reincarnation, spiritually harmonious

    3. Human Nature: To become guru (what one becomes once you figure everything out after reincarnation, final stage of life), once guru dies you become one with Brahman

    4. How do I Know?: If all is one, everything will figure itself out through following logic

    5. Right Thing to do: Be united with each other to help everyone get to Brahman, that includes everything alive like trees and animals too

    2. Nature of the Universe: Orderly, By Jesus all was created and through him all holds together

    3. Human Nature: We're supposed to be like God but sin gets in the way, there are two types of humans- Adam: Death, destruction, entropy Jesus: Heaven, church, redemption

    4. How do I Know?: The Bible (God's word), the world (creation/nature), and the logic that Jesus is Yawey

    5. Right Thing to do: Follow/align/have faith in Jesus and you will start to become like him