Sylvia Henley

Sylvia Henley



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Sylvia Stanley was born on 19th March, 1882. She was one of the seven children to survive to adulthood of Edward Lyulph Stanley, who succeeded as fourth Baron Stanley of Alderley in 1903 and Mary Bell Stanley. The family lived at Alderley Park, a rambling early nineteenth-century house, near Macclesfield, Cheshire. (1)

Sylvia was encouraged to take an interest in politics and as a teenager could offer friends a family stimulating conversation. The family also discussed religion. Baron Stanley was a freethinker and according to Bertrand Russell he argued that Christianity was usually "a faith held by inheritance" but he insisted that "faith should be held only by conviction." (2)

Sylvia's brother, Arthur Stanley, became the Liberal Party MP for the seat of Eddisbury in Cheshire. It was her brother who introduced her to Anthony Morton Henley. He was a regular visitor to Alderley Park and was "always ready to inject light-hearted banter into the sometimes overheated Stanley family gatherings". Sylvia Stanley married Captain Henley on 24th April, 1906. (3)

In 1907 Sylvia's sister, Venetia Stanley, became close friends with Violet Asquith, the daughter of H. Asquith, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who two years later was to become the British prime minister. In their letters Venetia and Violet constantly professed undying love for one another. Violet also sent her presents:"I’ve sent you a tiny and very humble gift which you must wear always (in your bath and in your bed) and if you think it too ugly you may tuck it in under your combies." (4)

Venetia accompanied Violet and her father on a trip to Sicily in 1912. Also on holiday with them was the young Liberal Party MP, Edwin Montagu. Over the next two weeks both men fell in love with Venetia. Asquith, was 59 years old at the time and in a letter to her later he described the holiday as "the first stage in our intimacy... we had together one of the most interesting and delightful fortnights in all our lives... the scales dropped from my eyes… and I dimly felt… that I had come to a turning point in my life". (5)

On their return from holiday Asquith invited Venetia to a house party, following this up with invitations to 10 Downing Street. However, he was unaware that Montagu was also besotted with Venetia. He wrote to her regularly and took her out whenever he could. It seems that Asquith was totally unaware of this developing relationship. In August 1912 he asked her to marry him. At first she accepted the proposal and later changed her mind. (6)

If Venetia accepted his proposal he would have lost his inheritance as his father, Samuel Montagu, 1st Baron Swaythling, who had died in 1911, had stipulated in his will that he had to marry a Jewish woman. "Although Venetia, physically repelled by his huge head and course pock-marked face, refused him, she lapped up the waspish political gossip at which he excelled, and they continued to see a great deal of one another, with Montagu a regular house guest at the Stanley family homes at Alderley and Penrhos." (7)

In 1913 Asquith began to write to Venetia Stanley on a regular basis and would meet her in London as often as possible. She admitted to Edwin Montagu: "It was delicious seeing him again... He was in very good spirits I thought in spite of the crisis (over Ireland). He didn't, as you can imagine, talk much about it and our conversation ran in very well worn lines, the sort that he enjoys on these occasions and which irritate Margot so much by their great dreariness. I love every well known word of them - with and for me familiarity in a large part of the charm." (8)

There are several accounts of Asquith attempting to seduce young women in his company. Diana Cooper complained that on several occasions she had to defend her face "from his fumbly hands and mouth". (9) The Asquith family were fully aware of his inappropriate behaviour. His daughter-in-law, Cynthia Asquith, wrote about it in her diary but according to her biographer, Nicola Beauman, she was forced to "ink over all references in her diary". Ottoline Morrell was another woman who complained about his behaviour. Apparently she told Lytton Strachey that Asquith "would take a lady's hand, as she sat beside him on the sofa, and make her feel his erected instrument under his trousers". (10)

Sylvia Henley also complained about Asquith and commented that if she ever found herself alone with Asquith, "it was safest to sit either side of the fire... or to make sure there was a table between them." Another woman recalled an incident when "the Prime Minister had his head jammed down in to my shoulder and all my fingers in his mouth." (11) Henley's relationship with Asquith helped her husband's career as he was appointed the prime minister's private secretary. (12)

On 30th March, 1915, Asquith wrote to Venetia four times. Disturbed by his intense love of her she decided to bring an end to the relationship by marrying Edwin Montague. He had recently joined the cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. John Grigg has pointed out: "Still only in his middle thirties, he had risen in politics as Asquith's protégé but was far from being a mere hanger-on... Rich and privileged, intellectually a late-developer, sensitive and emotional yet capable of a certain ruthlessness, he was now becoming a rather important figure." (13)

Montagu now had status as well as money. Venetia Stanley decided to accept his proposal of marriage. "For Montagu, religion was a purely personal affair; he had no formal religious beliefs, was anti-Zionist, and constantly emphasized his foremost identity as a Briton". However, in order that Montagu could continue to receive an annual income of £10,000 from his father's estate, Venetia was compelled to convert to Judaism. (14)

On 12th May 1915, Asquith was shocked and appalled to receive Venetia's letter announcing her engagement to the man who he recently appointed as his Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Asquith replied that this news "breaks my heart" and that he "couldn't bear to come and see you". (15)

On the day he heard the news Asquith wrote three letters to Sylvia Henley, about the proposed marriage. In the second letter he pointed out: "I had never any illusions, and often told Venetia: and she also was always most frank about her someday getting married. But this. We have always treated it as a kind of freakish, but unimaginable venture. I don't believe there are two living people who, each in their separate ways, are more devoted to me than she and Montagu: and it is the way of fortune that they two should combine to deal a death-blow to me."

Asquith then went on to assess Venetia's choice as husband including: "I am really fond of him, recognise his intellectual merits, find him excellent company and have always been able to reckon on his loyalty and devotion. Anything but this! It is not merely the prohibitive physical side (bad as that is) - I won't say anything about race and religion though they are not quite negligible factors. But he is not a man: a shamble of words and nerves and symptoms, intensely self absorbed, and - but I won't go on with the dismal catalogue." (16)

Violet Asquith was also upset by the news: "Curious and disturbing news reached us on Wednesday evening of Montagu's engagement to Venetia... Montagu's physical repulsiveness to me is such that I would lightly leap from the top story of Queen Anne's Mansions - or the Eiffel Tower itself to avoid the lightest contact - the thought of any erotic amenities with him is enough to freeze one's blood. Apart from this he is not only very unlike and Englishman - or indeed a European - but also extraordinarily unlike a man... He has no robustness, virility, courage, physical competency - he is devoured by hypochondria - which if it does not spring from a diseased body must indicate a very unhealthy mind." (17)

Margot Asquith was pleased the relationship was over. She told her daughter: "That want of candour in Venetia is what has hurt him but she has suffered tortures of remorse poor darling and I feel sorry for her... He is wonderful over it all - courageous, convinced and very humble. They were both old enough to know their own minds and no one must tease them now. There's a good deal of bosh in the religion campaign, though superficially it takes one in... It is Montagu's physique that I could never get over not his religion". (18)

In 1915 Sylvia's husband was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and joined the staff of General John French, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) on the Western Front. Sylvia complained about his lack of letters and after his sister's marriage to Edwin Montagu, she took over as Asquith's main confidante. Margot Asquith actually encouraged the relationship and she thought it would help her husband deal with losing Venetia. However, his daughter, Violet Asquith, did not agree as she "sensed a new, more dangerous challenge to her father's affections". (19)

Sylvia kept her husband informed about Asquith's growing affection for her. She wrote to him about a weekend she spent at Asquith's house. "As we went to bed, the PM said he must show me his room. I was rather against this, as his affectionate nature gets the better of his wisdom, as you know. But there was no gainsaying him. We were standing talking, his arm around me, of books... I knew for certain he would exact a kiss from me, and knowing this I was glad it should be one of sympathy for that part of his life that I know about. And I told him how much love and sympathy I felt for him and kissed him - he can't do without affection... To me it is always a blot that the PM cannot like one without the physical side coming in so much. I should like him so much better if he held my hand and did not paw so much." (20)

In another letter later that month Sylvia told her husband that Venetia was upset that Asquith had turned his affections to her: "I am certain it cuts her to see the PM is fond of me." He began to take her out in his car and she claimed that she was able to "cajole the PM out of his sullen mood". Sylvia told her husband she was doing her "patriotic duty" in consoling Asquith: "He is now very fond of me in just the most wonderfully nice way. I hope our relations will never change." (21) On 2nd June 1915, Asquith told Sylvia: "You are my anchor and I love you and need you." (22)

Sylvia had to constantly fend off his physical approaches, such as kissing or enveloping arms. She told him that she loved being with him she did not want it to become a sexual relationship. Sylvia insisted "that so long as it remained platonic there was nothing I wanted more, but as soon as I felt there was a danger of that form of love giving place to the other - it must be all over." (23) Asquith replied that "an erotic adventure was never my idea". (24)

Knowing that Sylvia had the ear of Asquith, she received house calls from irate wives of politicians axed in government reshuffles. This included a visit from her cousin, Clementine Churchill, after Winston Churchill had been replaced by Arthur Balfour, as First Lord of the Admiralty. Clementine was so angry that she told Sylvia that she wanted to "dance on his (Asquith's) grave." (25)

Asquith wrote to Sylvia every day and expected her to do the same. He urged her to "go on loving me dearest, it makes so much difference". He told Sylvia that he needed to hear from her "every day" and that he always "counted the hours" between letters. In one letter he asked her to "think of me always, every day, if possible at all hours of the day". In his all-consuming passion, he visualised her constantly. "How clearly I have before me now your face. I only hope and pray that it may come to me in my dreams." (26)

Sylvia warned him about the state secrets he was including in his letters. He replied: "What a heavenly team we are together despite your criticisms (about writing letters at War Councils) and your warnings (about limits!), I can't tell you what a supreme delight it is to me, to come to you and sit beside you and confide things to you"and to feel that the wisest of women is near me - and really loves me! I believe you do; and you don't know or imagine how much I love you." (27)

Sylvia also attempted to promote her husband's career and went on a car drive with General William Robertson where she argued that he should be given an active field command. However, she constantly complained about Henley's lack of letters from France. This turned to fury when she discovered that he was writing regularly to her sister, Venetia. She demanded to see the letters, but Venetia refused, but she did tell her that Henley had used the words "I long to be with you". Sylvia wrote to her husband: "I see you're so false, telling me I am everything to you. And now I know that as you said it, you were longing to be with her and not me." (28)

Sylvia Henley warned her husband that she would allow herself to get even closer to Asquith: "A rudderless ship is so easily blown onto a sea shore". When she told Asquith about the situation he gave her a ring and tried to persuade her to wear it on the little finger on her right hand. Venetia continued to write intimate letters to Anthony Morton Henley. This included a reference to meeting at a hotel at Folkestone on 12th July, 1915. (29)

H. Asquith had also developed other close relationships with other women during this period. These women were usually "married and therefore convention allowed close friendships to flourish with the opposite sex". (30) This included the actress, Viola Tree, Pamela McKenna, the wife of the cabinet member, Reginald McKenna, the sculptress Kathleen Scott, Christabel McLaren (later Lady Aberconway) and Hilda Harrison, whose husband had been killed during the First World War. (31)

By the winter of 1915 Sylvia Henley had became even more important to Asquith. The main reason for this was that he was now under considerable pressure from the newspapers over the way he was leading the nation during the First World War. This included his reluctance to introduce conscription and the Zeppelin Bombing Raids, that killed 277 and wounded 645 civilians during that year. (32)

Sylvia was also deeply concerned about her relationship with her husband. "I have allowed my thoughts to wander back to what is behind and to speculate as to what is to come to us. It will always be a sorrow to me to give you up as my intimate lover. To give up the entire possession of you, but I am, I think, sensible enough to realise that it isn't a relationship which can be eternal, and I am now prepared to accept a compromise. I have showed you how deeply and passionately I can love you, and how you can be so much the centre of my life, that all else is eclipsed. But such a love must be exacting and that makes life rather difficult, especially to a man of your temperament." (33)

Stories about Asquith's behaviour towards young women continued to circulate. The campaigner for women's rights, Ethel Smyth, wrote to Randall Thomas Davidson, the Archbishop of Canterbury: "It is disgraceful that millions of women shall be trampled underfoot because of the convictions of an old man who notoriously can't be left alone in a room with a young girl after dinner". (34) Duff Cooper also commented that whereas Asquith was "oblivious of young men" he was "lecherous of young women". (35)

In November 1916, David Lloyd George came to the conclusion that the present structure of command and direction of policy could not win the war and might well lose it. Lloyd George agreed with Maurice Hankey, secretary of the Imperial War Cabinet, that he should talk to Andrew Bonar Law, the leader of the Conservative Party, about the situation. Bonar Law remained loyal to Asquith and so Lloyd George contacted Max Aitken instead and told him about his suggested reforms.

Lord Northcliffe joined with Lloyd George in attempting to persuade Asquith and several of his cabinet, including Sir Edward Grey, Arthur Balfour, Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe and Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, to resign. It was reported that Lloyd George was trying to encourage Asquith to establish a small War Council to run the war and if he did not agree he would resign. (36)

Tom Clarke, the news editor of The Daily Mail, claims that Lord Northcliffe told him to take a message to the editor, Thomas Marlowe, that he was to run an article on the political crisis with the headline, "Asquith a National Danger". According to Clarke, Marlowe "put the brake on the Chief's impetuosity" and instead used the headline "The Limpets: A National Danger". He also told Clarke to print pictures of Lloyd George and Asquith side by side: "Get a smiling picture of Lloyd George and get the worst possible picture of Asquith." Clarke told Northcliffe that this was "rather unkind, to say the least". Northcliffe replied: "Rough methods are needed if we are not to lose the war... it's the only way." (37)

On 4th December, 1916, The Times praised Lloyd George's stand against the present "cumbrous methods of directing the war" and urged Asquith to accept the "alternative scheme" of the small War Council, that he had proposed. Asquith should not be a member of the council and instead his qualities were "fitted better... to preserve the unity of the Nation". (38) Even the Liberal Party supporting Manchester Guardian, referred to the humiliation of Asquith, whose "natural course would be either to resist the demand for a War Council, which would partly supersede him as Premier, or alternatively himself to resign." (39)

At a Cabinet meeting the following day, Asquith refused to form a new War Council that did not include him. Edwin Montagu suggested that King George V should be asked to call Asquith, Lloyd George, Andrew Bonar Law (leader of the Conservative Party) and Arthur Henderson (leader of the Labour Party) together to find a solution. Lloyd George refused and instead resigned. (40)

Lloyd George announced: "It is with great personal regret that I have come to this conclusion.... Nothing would have induced me to part now except an overwhelming sense that the course of action which has been pursued has put the country - and not merely the country, but throughout the world the principles for which you and I have always stood throughout our political lives - is the greatest peril that has ever overtaken them. As I am fully conscious of the importance of preserving national unity, I propose to give your Government complete support in the vigorous prosecution of the war; but unity without action is nothing but futile carnage, and I cannot be responsible for that." (41)

Conservative members of the coalition made it clear that they would no longer be willing to serve under Asquith. At 7 p.m. he drove to Buckingham Palace and tendered his resignation to King George V. Apparently, he told J. Thomas, that on "the advice of close friends that it was impossible for Lloyd George to form a Cabinet" and believed that "the King would send for him before the day was out." Thomas replied "I, wanting him to continue, pointed out that this advice was sheer madness." (42)

Writing to Sylvia Henley the day after his resignation Asquith confessed "to feeling a certain sense of relief" now he was out of office. (43) Sylvia continued to be a sounding board for Asquith, however, he seemed to lose interest in her as she became heavily pregnant. She was disappointed when she gave birth to a third girl. "It is no good moping and I only hope next time will bring us what we want so much." (44)

Brigadier-General Anthony Morton Henley was heavily involved in the breakthrough of the Hindenburg Line on 27th September, 1918. His brigade continued fighting almost up to the Armistice. Henley finished the war having been mentioned in dispatches eight times. In 1919 he was awarded the Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George. Sylvia's brother, Oliver Stanley, also survived the war, although he wounded three times. The family was lucky as nearly 20 per cent of serving peers under 50 years of age being killed in action. (45)

Henley died of a heart attack, aged 51, in 1925. Sylvia Henley continued to see H. Asquith until his death on 15th February 1928. The family home of Alderley Park was destroyed by fire in 1931 and the 4,500-acre estate was sold. During the Second World War, as she was an old friend of Winston Churchill, she was a regular visitor to 10 Downing Street.

Sylvia Henley died of a heart attack, aged 98, on 18th May, 1980.

As we went to bed, the PM said he must show me his room. I should like him so much better if he held my hand and did not paw so much.

Since I wrote to you this morning I have gone through a Cabinet, a luncheon with Prince Paul of Serbia and Sir R. McBride of British Columbia and a rather searching question time at the House and I hope I got through them all without any sign of disquietude or impotence. All the same, I don't suppose there is in the kingdom at this moment a much more unhappy man.

I had never any illusions, and often told Venetia: and she also was always most frank about her someday getting married. I don't believe there are two living people who, each in their separate ways, are more devoted to me than she and Montagu: and it is the way of fortune that they two should combine to deal a death-blow to me... I am really fond of him, recognise his intellectual merits, find him excellent company and have always been able to reckon on his loyalty and devotion. Anything but this!

It is not merely the prohibitive physical side (bad as that is) - I won't say anything about race and religion though they are not quite negligible factors. But he is not a man: a shamble of words and nerves and symptoms, intensely self absorbed, and - but I won't go on with the dismal catalogue...

She says at the end of a sadly meagre letter: "I can't help feeling, after all the joy you've given me, that mine is a very treacherous return". Poor darling: I wouldn't have put it like that. But in essence it is true: and it leaves me sore and humiliated.

Dearest Sylvia, I am almost ashamed to write to you like this, and I know you won't say a word to her of what I have written. But whom have I but you to turn to? in this searching trial, which comes upon me, when I am almost overwhelmed with every kind and degree of care and responsibility. Don't think that I am blaming her: I shall love her with all my heart to my dying day; she has given me untold happiness. I shall always bless her. But - I know you will understand. Send me a line of help and sympathy.

While there’s no proof that they had a physical relationship, Venetia and Violet constantly professed undying love for one another, as well as sending each other little presents. "I’ve sent you a tiny and very humble gift which you must wear always (in your bath and in your bed)," wrote Violet, "and if you think it too ugly you may tuck it in under your combies."

So who was Venetia Stanley, the object of not only the Prime Minister’s affections, but his daughter’s, too? On the surface, she came from an impeccably conventional aristocratic family. Peer a little more closely, though, and what emerges is anything but conventional.

It seems quite possible that Venetia’s uncle may also have been her father. Certainly there were lots of rumours to that effect and her mother was known to have had an affair with her husband’s brother. Despite Venetia possessing what one friend of hers called "a gruff baritone voice", Asquith thought her the most alluring woman he’d ever met..

When Venetia announced her engagement to an extremely drippy man called Edwin Montagu - Secretary of State for India - the Prime Minister was heartbroken.

However, he didn’t repine for long, swiftly transferring his attentions to Venetia’s younger sister, Sylvia. Initially flattered, Sylvia soon discovered that if she was alone with Asquith, "it was safest to sit either side of the fire... or to make sure there was a table between them."

Not that she was the only object of his attentions. By today’s standards, Asquith was a serial groper. One woman recalled an incident when "the Prime Minister had his head jammed down in to my shoulder and all my fingers in his mouth"...

When Edwin died in 1924, Venetia literally took to the air, buying herself an airplane and whizzing around the Middle East with yet another of her lovers. By now some of her old friends, appalled by all this conjugal carnage, had given her up as a bad lot.

But not Winston Churchill and his wife, Clementine, who had always been fond of Venetia - she’d been a bridesmaid at their wedding. During World War II they regularly invited her to their weekend retreat at Ditchley Park in Oxfordshire.

I have allowed my thoughts to wander back to what is behind and to speculate as to what is to come to us. But such a love must be exacting and that makes life rather difficult, especially to a man of your temperament.

.

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(1) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) pages 129-130

(2) Bertrand Russell, The Autobiography (2000) page 600

(3) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) pages 129-130

(4) John Preston, The Daily Mail (10th June, 2016)

(5) Michael Brock, H.H. Asquith: Letters to Venetia Stanley (1982) page 532

(6) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) page 138

(7) Colin Clifford, The Asquiths (2002) page 190

(8) Venetia Stanley, letter to Edwin Montagu (November 1912)

(9) Naomi B. Levine, Politics, Religion and Love (1991) pages 232-235

(10) Nicola Beauman, Cynthia Asquith (1987) page 195

(11) John Preston, The Daily Mail (10th June, 2016)

(12) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) page 139

(13) John Grigg, Lloyd George, From Peace To War 1912-1916 (1985) page 240

(14) Chandrika Kaul, Edwin Montague: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(15) H. Asquith, letter to Venetia Stanley (12th May, 1915)

(16) H. Asquith, letter to Sylvia Henley (12th May, 1915)

(17) Violet Bonham Carter, diary entry (14th May, 1915)

(18) Margot Asquith, letter to Violet Asquith (7th June, 1915)

(19) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) page 145

(20) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (9th May, 1915)

(21) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (21st May, 1915)

(22) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (2nd June, 1915)

(23) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (29th May, 1915)

(24) H. Asquith, letter to Sylvia Henley (18th June, 1915)

(25) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) page 152

(26) H. Asquith, letter to Sylvia Henley (8th June, 1915)

(27) H. Asquith, letter to Sylvia Henley (14th June, 1915)

(28) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (16th July, 1915)

(29) Venetia Stanley Montagu, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (27th October, 1915)

(30) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) page 162

(31) Colin Clifford, The Asquiths (2002) page 472

(32) A. J. P. Taylor, English History: 1914-1945 (1965) page 75

(33) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (23rd January, 1916)

(34) Cate Haste, Rules of Desire: Sex in Britain (1992) page 2

(35) John Julius Norwich, The Duff Cooper Diaries (2005) page 35

(36) The Times (2nd December, 1916)

(37) Tom Clarke, My Northcliffe Diary (1931) pages 105-107

(38) The Times (4th December, 1916)

(39) The Manchester Guardian (4th December, 1916)

(40) John Grigg, Lloyd George, From Peace To War 1912-1916 (1985) page 466

(41) David Lloyd George, letter to H. Asquith (5th December, 1916)

(42) J. Thomas, My Story (1937) page 43

(43) H. Asquith, letter to Sylvia Henley (6th December, 1916)

(44) Sylvia Henley, letter to Anthony Morton Henley (30th January, 1917)

(45) Jonathan Walker, The Blue Beast: Power and Passion in the Great War (2012) page 178


Unduk Ngadau

The Unduk Ngadau beauty pageant is held to commemorate the spirit of Huminodun, the mythological maiden who was of total beauty of the heart, mind and soul. The title is derived from the phrase runduk tadau which means "the girl crowned by the sunlight". Unduk Ngadau Kaamatan is one of the most recognisable cultural events in Sabah and the beauty pageant is unique to the state. The state-level pageant is the highlight and ending point of the month-long Kaamatan celebrations.

Contestants in the state-level pageant generally represent their district. However, some districts hold joint pageants which produce more than one state-level representative.

Beginning in 1995, Sabahans residing in Peninsular Malaysia who celebrate Kaamatan have been acknowledged by the organisation. The first ever representative was Angeline Ongkunik, carrying the title Klang Valley. The first Klang Valley's representative who won the state-level crown was Daphne Iking in 2003. In the following year, Janeitha Stephen of Klang Valley was placed as the first runner-up to Tamparuli's Fharelynne Ivonne Henry. Many of the Klang Valley representatives have had their best placements in the state-level competition 2001's Ryna Rychie James (second runner-up), 2005's Susanna James Kenson (fourth runner-up), 2007's Jaslinder Kaur (sixth runner-up), 2008's Anne Marie Tauriq Khan (sixth runner-up), 2013's Ledesma Steven (fifth runner-up), 2014's Maylesthelyn Ley Matius (sixth runner-up), 2016's Patricia Elsa Jimy (fifth runner-up), 2017's Sharlina Gilbert Mojinun (fifth runner-up) and 2019's Vinny Alvionitta Sasising (sixth runner-up).

In 2014, the state of Johor in Peninsular Malaysia has been included in the competition. The first winner for Johor was Liz Lorena Rayner who was placed as the second runner-up in the competition. A few years later, 2018's Madeleine Sophie Binidip was placed as third runner-up.

The state of Penang debuted in 2018, whose title first won by Sherleni Madawal. The highest placement of Penang was achieved by Fiona Josepher in 2019, where she placed top 20.

In 2021, the state of Melaka and Perak debuted in the competition through the wildcard holders from Unduk Ngadau Kaamatan Putatan 2021. Jessica Stephen became the first representative of Melaka (placed 11th in district level) while Fenelyne Juilin representing Perak (placed 10th in district level).

In 2012, the question-and-answer round was reformed wherein the final contestants must answer the question in their ethnic language. Melinda Louis was one of the first to have succeeded the reformed question-and-answer and she eventually won.

Since 2019, the format of the Unduk Ngadau has changed. The winners from the district level will be using the sashes through the regions from Sabah States Legislative Assembly (DUN Sabah). This format will be adding more participants throughout the show. The highest number of contestants was in 2021 with 79 delegates.

The current Unduk Ngadau is Maya Hejnowska of Api-Api. As the organization needs to follow the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the Unduk Ngadau 2019, Francisca Ester Nain of Karambunai only be able to do her final walk while the crowning moment will be done by the winners itself. The final held on May 31, 2021, in Hongkod Koisaan Hall, KadazanDusun Cultural Association (KDCA) Penampang.

Year District Unduk Ngadau Kaamatan Notes
Miss Kadazan (1960–1970)
1960 Penampang Mui Lan 25 contestants from all over the Penampang district and other districts competed in this very first competition. She is among the winners who are Sino-Kadazandusun.
1961 Papar Talian Bunal Miss Sabah Universe 1969 Top 7 Miss Malaysia Universe 1969
1962 Papar Marcella Tiansim
1963 Putatan Mary Badak
1964 Tuaran Rita Ja'afar
1965 Papar Molina Daniel
1966 Penampang Patricia Sinidol She was the late Datuk Fred Sinidol's daughter. Her sister, Evelyn Sinidol, won the title in the 1972 edition. She and her sister, Evelyn Sinidol, were Eurasian.
1967 Papar Florina Bibi Abdullah She is the current Pro Chancellor of Lincoln University College, a private college in Kelana Jaya, Selangor. She is half Punjabi, her mother is Kadazan from Papar.
1968 Penampang Rita Mojilis
1969 Penampang Sylvia Totu
1970 Penampang Helen Mojiniu
Miss Harvest Festival (1971–1980)
1971 Tamparuli Mary @ Mili Jaikoh Imbayan She was the second runner-up in the previous edition.
1972 Penampang Evelyn Sinidol Her sister, Patricia Sinidol, won the title in the 1966 edition.
1973 Inanam Prisca Tikoh She is the mother-in-law of the Unduk Ngadau 2008.
1974 Kota Kinabalu Susanna Jipanis
1975 Sandakan Rita Sikawah
1976 Penampang Edwina Totu Her sister, Sylvia Totu, won the title in the 1969 edition.
1977 Beaufort Mary Marjorie Kinjau Her sister, Janet Kinjau, won the title in the 1983 edition. She was the first runner-up in the previous edition.
1978 Inanam Veronica Jefferin
1979 Tanjung Aru Mary Solly She is Eurasian.
1980 Tuaran Roslina Amit She is a Bajau-Dusun Lotud and is the first and only Muslim winner.
Ratu Pesta Menuai (1981–1986)
1981 Penampang Janet Anthony Dabi The second runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Penampang 1981.
1982 Beaufort Margaret Dolly Jimayol The second runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Penampang 1982. She competed in Unduk Ngadau Beaufort 1982 and won. She is Eurasian.
1983 Penampang Janet Kinjau Her sister won the title in the 1977 edition.
1984 Penampang Esther Sikayun Her daughter, Crystel Eve Huminodun, was crowned Unduk Ngadau 2010. They are the first and only mother-daughter titleholders in the pageant's history.
1985 Kota Kinabalu Florence Jipiu
1986 Penampang Johanna Disimond Her first cousin, Jane Peter Disimond, was the second runner-up in the 1979 edition. Their niece, Botiza Arthur Disimond, won the title in the 2011 edition.
Unduk Ngadau Kaamatan (1987–present)
1987 Tanjung Aru Joan Gloria Tommy
1988 Penampang Jennie Alassa The first runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Penampang 1988. At that time, Penampang sent two delegates.
1989 Penampang Deidre Peter Mojuntin She is the daughter of a local politician, Datuk Peter Mojuntin.
1990 Tanjung Aru Julia Augustine
1991 Tuaran Sylvia Sandralisa Orow She is the youngest winner of Unduk Ngadau history at the age of 15. She currently lived in New York City, New York, USA.
1992 Putatan Anita Pudin
1993 Inanam Luzie @ Lucy Tham Her sister, Lunny Tham, was the Unduk Ngadau Inanam 2001.
1994 Labuan Agatha Nora Lojimin She was also the Unduk Ngadau Labuan in 1992.
1995 Kawang Justinah Manius One of the runner-ups in Unduk Ngadau Papar 1995.
1996 Elopura Lynnefra @ Lynn Alfera Wong One of the runner-ups in Unduk Ngadau Sandakan 1996.
1997 Bongawan Jan Lisamarrie William She was the winner of Unduk Ngadau Papar 1997 and representing as a sash of Bongawan. She is Eurasian.
1998 Inanam Jeremiah Ginajil She was the first runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Inanam 1998 but she then represented the district due to the actual winner being underage.
1999 Inanam Kathie Renjus She was the winner of Unduk Ngadau Inanam 1998 but then replaced by the first runner-up due to underage. She then joined again in the following year and eventually wins the title of Unduk Ngadau Inanam 1999. Her first runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Inanam 1998, Jeremiah Ginajil was the winner of Unduk Ngadau 1998.
2000 Melalap Regina Intang One of the runner-ups in Unduk Ngadau Tenom 2000.
2001 Petagas Nicolita Sanseh Masi She was the first runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Penampang. Also a finalist in Dewi Remaja 2005. She is Eurasian.
2002 Kiulu Patrecia Raymond Chong The second runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Tuaran 2002.
2003 Klang Valley Daphne @ Dahlia Eleanor Mozes Iking She was originally from Tambunan. Also known as a TV host, model and an actress.
2004 Tamparuli Fharelynne Ivonne Henry The first runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Tuaran 2004. She became the first runner-up in Miss World Sabah 2006.
2005 Penampang Madelyne Mandy Nandu She then became Miss Earth Malaysia 2009.
2006 Sulaman Devenna Jaikob One of the runners-up in Unduk Ngadau Tuaran 2006. She won the Unduk Ngadau SAPP 2006 title and Miss World Sabah 2008.
2007 Tuaran Jo-Anna Sue Henley Rampas She is a half British who hails from Kg. Poturidong, Kiulu, Tuaran. She was a runner-up in Bintang RTM. She was the political secretary to the former Chief Minister of Sabah, Shafie Apdal. [2] In 2019, she was elected as the chairperson of the Unduk Ngadau Kaamatan committee. [3]
2008 Penampang Leonie Lawrence Gontuni
2009 Papar Appey Rowenna Januin She then became Miss Earth Malaysia 2010. Her sister, Arveyna Pamella Januin and Annette Rabecca Januin, was the Unduk Ngadau Papar 2017 and Unduk Ngadau Papar 2019 respectively.
2010 Tanjung Aru Crystel Eve Huminodun William Majinbon One of the runners-up in Unduk Ngadau Kota Kinabalu 2010. She was the first runner-up in Miss Earth Malaysia 2011. Her mother, Esther Sikayun, won the title in 1984. To date, they are the first and only mother-daughter titleholders in the pageant's history.
2011 Penampang Botiza Arthur S. Disimond She is the niece of Johanna Disimond, the Ratu Pesta Menuai 1986.
2012 Telupid Melinda Louis She won the Unduk Ngadau Telupid title in 2008 but had withdrawn due to her studies. She then competed again in 2012 and eventually won the state-level title.
2013 Kota Kinabalu Immaculate Lojuki She was crowned as Miss International Malaysia 2015. Her sister, Mary Grace Lojuki, competed in Unduk Ngadau Kota Kinabalu 2018.
2014 Kota Kinabalu Cheryl Lynn Pinsius She was the Unduk Ngadau Inanam 2011. She became the first runner-up in Miss Southeast Asia 2016. Her sister, Cracy Pinsius, was the Unduk Ngadau Inanam 2000.
2015 Tanjung Aru Ryannie Neils Yong The second runner-up in Unduk Ngadau Kota Kinabalu 2015. She competed in Miss Grand Sabah 2019 and Miss Scuba Sabah 2019. She was Miss Grand Putatan 2019.
2016 Penampang Sherry Anne Laujang She competed in a competitive Unduk Ngadau Kaamatan edition that year wherein she managed to outperform Claryssa Henry Ogodong of Kudat, who was a crowd favourite. She is a Eurasian titleholder like some others.
2017 Kota Kinabalu Kerinah Mah She is Sino-Dusun Tambanuo. [4] She competed in Unduk Ngadau Pitas 2015, two years before winning the crown. She was crowned as Miss Grand Kota Kinabalu 2019 and Miss Earth Sabah 2019.
2018 Inanam Hosiani Keewon @ Hosiani James Jaimis She was the first runner-up of Unduk Ngadau Tambunan 2015.
2019 Karambunai Francisca Ester Nain Kota Belud lass who represented her hometown in the 2017 edition and made it to the Top 15 in the state-level competition. Two years later, in 2019, she managed to bring home the crown and was the only contestant in the Top 7 who answered the questions in ethnic language. She was Miss Tourism and Culture Universe Malaysia 2018. She was placed as the fourth runner-up in the international level, bringing home the Miss Popular Award. She is the only one in the history of Unduk Ngadau to hold the title for two term years. [5]
2021 Api-Api Maya Hejnowska She has a mixed-blood of Kadazan and Polish descent.

District/DUN Titles Year
Penampang 17 1960, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1976, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1989, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2016
Inanam 6 1973, 1978, 1993, 1998, 1999, 2018
Kota Kinabalu 5 1974, 1985, 2013, 2014, 2017
Tanjung Aru 1979, 1987, 1990, 2010, 2015
Papar 1961, 1962, 1965, 1967, 2009
Tuaran 4 1964, 1980, 1991, 2007
Tamparuli 2 1971, 2004
Putatan 1963, 1992
Beaufort 1977, 1982
Api-Api 1 2021
Karambunai 2019
Telupid 2012
Sulaman 2006
Klang Valley 2003
Kiulu 2002
Petagas 2001
Melalap 2000
Bongawan 1997
Elopura 1996
Kawang 1995
Labuan 1994
Sandakan 1975

42 delegates all across Sabah competed in Unduk Ngadau State 2014 competition. Only 15 delegates are able to compete in the next round.


Contents

The title "Miss Universe" was first used by the International Pageant of Pulchritude in 1926. This contest was held annually until 1935, when the Great Depression and other events preceding World War II led to its demise.

The current Miss Universe pageant was founded in 1952 by Pacific Knitting Mills, a California-based clothing company and manufacturer of Catalina Swimwear. The company was the sponsor of the Miss America pageant until 1951, when the winner, Yolande Betbeze, refused to pose for publicity pictures wearing one of their swimsuits. In 1952, Pacific Knitting Mills organized the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants, co-sponsoring them for decades to follow.

The first Miss Universe Pageant was held in Long Beach, California in 1952. It was won by Armi Kuusela from Finland, who gave up her title, though not officially, to get married, shortly before her year was completed. [9] Until 1958, the Miss Universe title, like that of Miss America, was dated by the year following the contest, so at the time Ms. Kuusela's title was Miss Universe 1953. Since its founding by Pacific Mills, the pageant has been organized and conducted by the Miss Universe Organization. Eventually, Pacific Mills and its subsidiaries were acquired by the Kayser-Roth Corporation, which was in turn acquired by Gulf and Western Industries.

The pageant was first televised in 1955. CBS began broadcasting the combined Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants in 1960, and as separate contests in 1965. More than 30 years later, Donald Trump bought the pageant in 1996 from ITT Corp, with a broadcasting arrangement with CBS until 2002. [10] During this time, in 1998, Miss Universe, Inc. changed its name to the Miss Universe Organization, and moved its headquarters from Los Angeles to New York City. [11] [12] By late 2002, Trump entered into a joint venture with NBC, [1] [13] which in 2003 outbid the other markets for the TV rights. [14] From 2003 to 2014, the pageant was broadcast in the United States on NBC.

In June 2015, NBC cancelled all business relationships with Trump and the Miss Universe Organization in response to controversial statements about illegal immigrants who crossed the border from Mexico. [15] [16] As part of the legal settlement, in September 2015, Trump bought out NBC's 50% stake in the company, making him the company's sole owner. Three days later, he sold the whole company to WME/IMG. [17] [18] Following the change of ownership, in October 2015, Fox and Azteca became the official broadcasters of the Miss Universe and Miss USA pageants. [19] The current president of the Miss Universe Organization is Paula Shugart, who has held this position since 1997. [20]

During the CBS telecast era, John Charles Daly hosted the Miss Universe Pageant from 1955 to 1966, Bob Barker from 1967 to 1987, Alan Thicke in 1988, John Forsythe in 1989, Dick Clark from 1990 to 1993, Bob Goen from 1994 to 1996, and Jack Wagner in 1998 and 1999. During the NBC telecast era, Billy Bush hosted the Miss Universe Pageant from 2003 to 2005 and 2009, Andy Cohen in 2011 and 2012, and Thomas Roberts in 2013 and 2014. Daisy Fuentes, Nancy O'Dell, Mel B and Natalie Morales are currently the only females to have hosted the event multiple times (from 2002 to 2004, 2005 and 2006, 2008 and 2013, and from 2010 to 2011 and 2014, respectively).

During the Fox telecast era from 2015 to 2019, Miss Universe was hosted annually by Steve Harvey. The backstage correspondents include Roselyn Sanchez in 2015, Ashley Graham from 2016 to 2018, Olivia Culpo in 2019. In 2020, the Miss USA and Miss Teen USA brands were split from the Miss Universe Organization into their independent organization, run by Crystle Stewart, while the broadcast rights to the Miss Universe Pageant was split between Telemundo and FYI. Mario Lopez returned as host in 2020 (alongside Culpo) after hosting for NBC in 2007.

To gain participation in Miss Universe, a country needs a local company or person to buy the local rights of the competition through a franchise fee. The fee includes the rights of image, brand and everything related to the pageant. Often the owner of the franchise returns the franchise to the Miss Universe Organization, which resells it to a new stakeholder. The reselling of the franchise from one owner to the next is recurrently common in the history of the event, sometimes for contractual breaches or financial reasons. The number of participants is inconsistent because of the franchising of the pageant paired with problems related to the calendar.

Usually a country's candidate selection involves pageants in the nation's local subdivisions, where local winners compete in a national pageant, but there are some countries who opt for an internal selection. For example, from 2000 to 2004, Australian delegates were chosen by a modeling agency. Although such "castings" are generally discouraged by the Miss Universe Organization, Jennifer Hawkins was chosen to represent the country in Miss Universe in 2004 (where she would eventually win the crown). When Australia resumed its national pageant in the following year, Michelle Guy became Miss Universe Australia 2005.

Recent countries that became involved in the pageant since the 2010s decade include Gabon and Lithuania (2012), Azerbaijan (2013), Sierra Leone (2016), Cambodia, Laos and Nepal (2017), Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia (2018), Bangladesh and Equatorial Guinea (2019), Cameroon (2020). Nepal is the most recent newcomer to place in the semifinals in Miss Universe after making into the Top 10 in 2018, while Botswana remains the most recent first-time entry to ever win Miss Universe on its debut year (in Mpule Kwelagobe in 1999), and Angola is the most recent country to obtain its first ever national win in Miss Universe (in Leila Lopes in 2011).

Cultural barriers in the swimsuit competition have prevented some countries from participating, while others like Mozambique have not participated because of the prohibitive cost of the event. The Miss Universe has historically proven popular in regions like the Americas, Africa and Asia, especially in countries like U.S.A., Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, South Africa, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand, all of which have appeared in the semifinals multiple times in the last decade.

As of 2021, only two countries have been present at every Miss Universe since its inception in 1952: Canada and France. Since its inception, Miss Universe strictly prohibits age fabrication, and all contestants are not allowed to be pregnant throughout the entire competition (and for winners, up to their reign). This posts a problem, however, for several European countries, which allow 17-year-old contestants to compete in their pageants. Since Miss Universe's minimum age is 18, national titleholders often have to be replaced by their runners-up or another candidate. In recent years, virtually all Miss Universe candidates are required to be at least university degree holders or working professionals from their onset of stints in their national pageants.

Beginning in 2012, openly transgender women were allowed to compete, as long as they won their national pageants. [21] Six years after this rule went into effect, Angela Ponce of Spain became the first openly transgender candidate to compete in the contest, in the 2018 [22] edition. In 2019, Swe Zin Htet became the first openly lesbian woman to compete in Miss Universe. Spain's Patricia Yurena Rodríguez is currently the highest-placed LGBT member at Miss Universe, placing second to Venezuela's Gabriela Isler in 2013, but did not come out until years after the competition. [23] [24] [25] [26]

Throughout the history of Miss Universe, the main contest has varied widely in terms of annual scheduling, though it has consistently been held over a two-week period in the -ber months of the year since 2017. From the 1970s through the 1990s, the pageant was a full month long, allowing time for rehearsals, appearances, and the preliminary competition, with the winner being crowned by the previous year's titleholder during the final competition.

According to the organizers, the Miss Universe contest is more than a beauty pageant, though they are expected to participate in swimsuit and evening gown competitions. Women aspiring to become Miss Universe must be intelligent, well-mannered, and cultured. If a candidate is unable to perform well during the question and answer round, she is often eliminated.

Normally, the placements of the finalists are determined by a ranked vote, where each judge ranks each of the final candidates (3 in 2019), with the contestant posting the lowest cumulative score (thus often, but not necessarily always, the contestant with the most number one votes) becoming the winner. If there is a tie, the higher semifinal scores become decisive. In the previous editions, the results of the preliminaries are cleared for the final and the competition resumes with the finalists.

The winner then signs a contract with the Miss Universe Organization that can last from seven to eighteen months and becomes the Miss Universe of the year of the competition in question (the contests for 2014, 2016 and 2020 were held in 2015, 2017 and 2021, respectively). In some years the competition is advanced or delayed. The new Miss Universe takes office immediately and takes on a public cause in which she becomes the ambassador for a year to spread messages about the control of diseases, peace, and public awareness of AIDS (though the organization's more recent humanitarian works have included various causes such as the rights of women, people of color and the LGBTQ+ community). Aside from the job, the winner also receives a cash allowance for her entire reign, a New York Film Academy scholarship, a modeling portfolio, beauty products, clothes, shoes, as well as styling, healthcare, and fitness services by different sponsors of the pageant. She also gains exclusive access to events such as fashion shows and opening galas, as well as access to casting calls and modeling opportunities throughout New York City. Between 1996 and 2015, the winner is given the use of a Trump Place apartment in New York City during her reign, which she shares with the Miss USA and Miss Teen USA titleholders. [27]

If the winner, for any reason, cannot fulfill her duties as Miss Universe, the 1st runner-up takes over. This protocol has happened only once as of 2021, when Panama's Justine Pasek succeeded Russia's Oxana Fedorova as Miss Universe in 2002 after the latter's dethronement later that same year. Aside from the main winner and her runners-up, special awards are also given to the winners of the best National Costume, Miss Photogenic, and Miss Congeniality. The Miss Congeniality award is chosen by the delegates themselves. In recent years, Miss Photogenic has been chosen by popular internet vote (the winner used to be chosen by media personnel covering the event).

Final judgment

All the contestants compete in a preliminary round of judging (called the "Preliminary Competition") where the field is narrowed to a select number of semifinalists. This number has fluctuated over the years. The first Miss Universe pageant had ten semifinalists. For the next two years, the number of semifinalists grew to 16. In 1955, the number dropped to a stable 15, which remained through 1970. In 1971, the number was reduced to 12. That number was further reduced to 10 in 1984. This lasted until 2003, when the contest reinstated the Top 15. This selection continued to be the norm until 2015, except in 2006 and 2011 to 2013. In 2006, 2018 and 2019, there are 20 semifinalists (with 2018 currently featuring the most competing contestants overall). The group was expanded to 21 semifinalists in 2020, the highest number of spots in the first cut so far in the pageant's history.

From 2011 to 2013, there were 16 semifinalists, 15 chosen by judges and one chosen through Internet votes. In the 2016 edition, there were 13 semifinalists - 12 chosen by judges panel during the evaluation phase period to the preliminary night and one chosen by Twitter and Vodi app. In 2017, 16 semifinalists were selected from 4 different groups each hailing from a different region in the world - Africa & Asia-Pacific, Europe, The Americas - and a wild card group (which was composed of all the other candidates who did not qualify in their respective continental competitions. In this group, there was also the Miss Internet). In 2018 and 2019, this number rose from 4 to 5, totaling 20 semifinalists. In the 2020 edition, the regional selection was removed. 20 semifinalists were chosen by judges and 1 through Internet votes on the Miss Universe and Lazada app, totaling 21 semifinalists (highest number of spots in the first cut so far in the pageant's history). The last time (before 2020) there was no regional selection was in 2016.

In the early years, the contestants were judged in swimsuit and evening gown only. The contestants are also judged based on on a variety of issues that vary from posture at events or interviews to your presence on social networks. The summit of the contest is the grand televised final that is held each year in a different international city, in which the semifinalists are known and progressively advance to the final stage of the questions. In this last stage, the runners-up are named and the winner is crowned as the new Miss Universe. Prior to the coronation night, the contestants also compete in a preliminary interview round in a one-on-one meeting with each individual judge (mostly closed-door sessions). The live interviews round for the semifinalists became a separate segment in 2001, and was reinstated to introduce the semifinalists between 2016 and 2019.

The 2018 edition marked the first time that the Miss Universe pageant included the live opening statements after the semifinalists have been announced, to be included in the overall results in determining the winner of the competition. The 2019 edition marked the first (and so far, only) time ever in Miss Universe pageant's history that the remaining finalists are required to deliver their live closing statements, to be included in the overall results, right before the announcement of the winner of the competition.

The crown of Miss Universe has changed nine times over the course of its 67-year history. [28]

  • Romanov Imperial Nuptial Crown (1952) as the first crown, was previously owned by the now-defunct Russian monarchy. It was used by Armi Kuusela in 1952. [28]
  • Romanov Diadem Crown or Metal Bronze Crown (1953) — When Christiane Martel of France became Miss Universe 1953, the nuptial crown was replaced by a metallic bronze crown. She was the only Miss Universe titleholder to wear this crown. [28]
  • Star of The Universe (1954–1960) — This crown was used from 1954 to 1960. It was named as such due to the star shape at the top of the crown. It is made up of approximately 1,000 Oriental cultured and black pearls set in solid gold and platinum and only weighed 1.25 pounds. It was insured for US$500,000. [28]
  • Lady Rhinestone Crown or Coventry Crown (1961–2001) — This crown was purely made from rhinestones, debuting in 1961 as part of the 10th anniversary of the Miss Universe pageant. Only Marlene Schmidt from Germany and Norma Nolan from Argentina wore this crown. [28] In 1963, renowned jeweler Sarah Coventry reinvented the rhinestone crown which featured a female figure (holding a scepter) as its main centerpiece. The cheaper cost of its rhinestone design made it possible to create exact replicas of the crown to be given to outgoing titleholders. The design was slightly modified in 1973 for the wearer's convenience, and was dubbed as The Lady Crown. This was used until 2002, when Denise Quinones became its last crown holder before relinquishing her role as Miss Universe, and the Mikimoto Pearl company accepted the offer to sponsor a commemorative crown for the Miss Universe Organization during the same year's 50th overall edition for the pageant. [28]
  • Mikimoto Crown (2002–2007 2017–2018) — used from 2002 to 2007 for the 50th commemorative anniversary of the Miss Universe organization, this crown was designed by Tomohiro Yamaji for the Mikimoto Company, the official jewel sponsor of the Miss Universe Organization. The crown depicted the phoenix rising, signifying status, power and beauty, as stipulated in their sponsorship deal. The crown has 500 natural colorless diamonds of almost 30 carats (6.0 g), 120 South Sea and Akoya pearls, ranging in size from 3 to 18 mm diameter and is valued at US$250,000. [28] The crown was designed for the pageant on Mikimoto Pearl Island in Japan with the Mikimoto crown and tiara being first used for Miss Universe 2002, which was unveiled by former proprietor Donald Trump. [29] Among pageant connoisseurs, the Mikimoto crown is reputedly the most sought among beauty title holders, before finally being retired for use after Catriona Gray became the last Miss Universe winner to ever use the crown on her reign until 2019.
  • CAO Crown (2008) — In 2008, Dayana Mendoza of Venezuela was crowned with a tiara designed by a tandem of Rosalina Lydster and Dang Kim Lien of CAO Fine Jewelry. The crown was valued at US$120,000, was made of an 18 karat combination of white and yellow gold and composed of over 1,000 precious stones, including 555 white diamonds (30 carats), 375 cognac diamonds (14 carats), 10 smoky quartz crystals (20 carats) and 19 morganite gemstones (60 carats). The yellow lustre of the gold represents the prosperous thriving economy in Vietnam as symbolized by a Vietnamese Crane heron. However, Mendoza declined to use this crown and thus insisted on the Mikimoto crown when she crowned her compatriot, Stefanía Fernández as her successor.
  • Diamond Nexus Crown (2009–2013) — From 2009 to 2013, Diamond Nexus Labs made the Miss Universe crown. The crown is set with 1,371 gemstones, weighing a total of 416.09 carats (83.218 g). It contains 544.31 grams of 14k and 18k white gold as well as platinum. [citation needed] The crown features synthetic rubies to represent Miss Universe's HIV/AIDS education and awareness platform. Diamond Nexus Labs is the first ever eco-friendly Official Jeweler of Miss Universe and was selected as part of NBC Universal's "Green is Universal" initiative. [30][31]
  • DIC Crown (2014–2016) — From 2014 to 2016, Paulina Vega, Pia Wurtzbach, and Iris Mittenaere were decorated with the DIC Crown, estimated to be worth US$300,000 and produced by Czech company Diamonds International Corporation (DIC). [32][33] The whole production process took approximately four months and required the work of ten artisans. The crown is reminiscent of the Manhattan Skyline and is composed of 311 diamonds, 5 pieces of blue topaz, 198 pieces of blue sapphire, 33 pieces of heat—fired crystals, and 220 grams of 18k karat white gold. The grand total weight of the crown is 411 grams. This crown was retired in 2017 due to a copyright infringement and subsequent payment issues between DIC and the Miss Universe Organization. [34]
  • Mouawad Power of Unity Crown (2019–present) — On December 5, 2019, the new jeweler of the Miss Universe Organization, Mouawad Jewelry, revealed the Mouawad Crown that is estimated to be worth US$5 million, making it the world's most expensive beauty pageant crown on record. [35] The crown consists of Golden Canary Diamond that weighs 62.83 carat. According to Pascal Mouawad, the crown symbolizes Ambition, Diversity, Community, and Beauty. [36]

Gallery of Miss Universe crowns

The Romanov Imperial Nuptial Crown, as worn by Miss Universe 1952, Armi Kuusela


Contents

Background information

She was named for Sue Henley, the actress who functioned as Kate Mulgrew's stand-in and played. Ensign Brooks. According to the script, her first name was Mariah.

According to the video game Star Trek: Starship Creator, Mariah Henley was born on Nuraka III to parents Loren and Donald Henley. She has a sister named Catherine.

Apocrypha

In the novel Star Trek: The Brave and the Bold, Henley served aboard the starship Geronimo as part of Chakotay's Maquis cell.


Contents

Lillie was born in Toronto to Irish-born John Lillie and his wife Lucie Ann (née Shaw). [1] [2] She had an elder sister, Muriel (1893–1973), at one time an aspiring concert pianist who later played the piano at silent movie houses, married firstly to the Egyptologist, stage designer and writer Arthur Weigall, and secondly to Sir Brian Dean Paul, 6th Baronet of Rodborough. [3] Her father was a cigar seller at the time of Lillie's birth, later working as a guard at the Toronto city jail. He had been a soldier in the British Army stationed in India, and on his honourable discharge went to Toronto rather than returning to Ireland. Lucie Ann Lillie (who had changed her name from "Lucy Ann"), who had "a modest reputation as a concert singer" [4] was the daughter of a Manchester clothing retailer who had retired to a farm outside Toronto. [5]

Lillie performed in Ontario towns as part of a family trio with her mother and older sister, Muriel, her father running the family home in Toronto as a boarding house in their absence. [6] Eventually, her mother took the girls to London, England, where she made her West End début in the 1914 show Not Likely! Lillie followed this with about a dozen London shows and musical revues until 1922. In her revues, Lillie developed her sketches, songs and parodies. These won her lavish praise from The New York Times after her 1924 Broadway début in André Charlot's Revue of 1924, starring Gertrude Lawrence. [7]

In some of her best known bits, she solemnly parodied the flowery performing style of earlier decades, mining such songs as "There Are Fairies at the Bottom of Our Garden" and "Mother Told Me So" for every double entendre. Other numbers ("Get Yourself a Geisha" and "Snoops the Lawyer") showcased her exquisite sense of the absurd. Her performing in such comedy routines as "One Dozen Double Damask Dinner Napkins", (in which an increasingly flummoxed matron attempts to purchase said napkins) earned her the frequently used sobriquet of "Funniest Woman in the World". [8] She never performed the "Dinner Napkins" routine in Britain because British audiences had seen it performed by the Australian-born English revue performer Cicely Courtneidge, for whom it was written. [ citation needed ]

In 1926, she returned to New York City to perform. While there, she starred in her first film, Exit Smiling (1927), opposite fellow Canadian Jack Pickford, the younger brother of Mary Pickford. This was followed by The Show of Shows (1929). [9] After a 1927 tour on the Orpheum Circuit, Lillie returned to Broadway in Vaudeville at the Palace Theatre in 1928 and performed there frequently after that. [9]

From the late 1920s until the approach of World War II, Lillie repeatedly crossed the Atlantic to perform on both continents. She played at the London Palladium in 1928. [9] On stage, she was long associated with the works of Noël Coward, beginning with This Year of Grace (1928) and giving the first public performance of "Mad Dogs and Englishmen" in Coward's The Third Little Show (1931). Cole Porter and others wrote songs for her. With Bobby Clark, she appeared in London and New York in Walk a Little Faster, in 1935 she starred on Broadway in At Home Abroad, and in 1936 she starred in New York in The Show Is On with Bert Lahr. [9]

She returned to Broadway in 1939 in Set to Music and in 1944 in Seven Lively Arts. The same year, Lillie appeared in the film On Approval. Other Broadway appearances included Inside USA (1948), An Evening with Beatrice Lillie (1952) (Broadway and London), Ziegfeld Follies of 1957, Auntie Mame (1958) (Broadway and London) and High Spirits (1964). Her few other film appearances included a cameo role as a revivalist in Around the World in 80 Days (1956) and as Mrs. Meers (a white slaver) in Thoroughly Modern Millie (1967), her last film. [9]

After seeing An Evening with Beatrice Lillie, critic Ronald Barker wrote "Other generations may have their Mistinguett and their Marie Lloyd. We have our Beatrice Lillie, and seldom have we seen such a display of perfect talent." [ citation needed ] Sheridan Morley noted in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that "Lillie's great talents were the arched eyebrow, the curled lip, the fluttering eyelid, the tilted chin, the ability to suggest, even in apparently innocent material, the possible double entendre". [10]

Lillie was married, on 20 January 1920 at the church of St. Paul, Drayton Bassett, Fazeley, Staffordshire, England, to Robert Peel, son of Sir Robert Peel, 4th Baronet, and at the time a used car salesman. The Peel family had "fallen on hard times", and Peel "had little else to offer besides the title of 5th baronet". He inherited the title on his father's death in 1925. [11] Peel was an enthusiastic gambler and, due to his limited means, he generally used his wife's money on their honeymoon in Monte Carlo, he lost all their money gambling. [12]

Peel had expensive tastes, and the couple were entirely dependent on her theatrical income throughout their marriage. [13] Following the marriage, she was known in private life as Lady Peel. She eventually separated from her husband, but the couple never divorced. He died in 1934 aged 35. Their only child, Sir Robert Peel, 6th Baronet (1920–1942), [14] was killed in action aboard HMS Tenedos (H04) in Colombo Harbour, Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) in 1942. [15]

During World War II, Lillie was an inveterate entertainer of the troops. Before she went on stage one day, she learned that her son was killed in action. She refused to postpone the performance, saying "I'll cry tomorrow." [ citation needed ] In 1948, while touring in the show Inside USA, she met singer/actor John Philip Huck. He was a former US Marine, almost three decades younger, who became her friend and companion for the rest of their lives, and she boosted his career. As Lillie's mental abilities declined at the end of her career, she relied more and more on Huck, whose intentions and loyalty to her were viewed with suspicion by her friends. She suffered a stroke in the mid-1970s, and in 1977, a conservator was appointed over her property she retired to England. [9]

Lillie retired from the stage due to Alzheimer's disease. Julie Andrews remembered that Lillie, as Mrs. Meers in Thoroughly Modern Millie (filmed in 1966 and released in 1967), had to be prompted through her lines and was often confused on set. [ citation needed ]

Lillie died in 1989, aged 94, at Henley-on-Thames. Huck died of a heart attack the next day, and the two were buried in the churchyard of St Margaret's in Harpsden, Oxfordshire, near Henley-on-Thames. [16]

Features Edit

  • Exit Smiling (1927) as Violet
  • The Show of Shows (1929) as Performer in 'Recitations' Number
  • Are You There? (1930) as Shirley Travis
  • Dr. Rhythm (1938) as Mrs. Lorelei Dodge-Blodgett
  • On Approval (1944) as Maria Wislack
  • Around the World in 80 Days (1956) as London revivalist leader
  • Thoroughly Modern Millie (1967) as Mrs. Meers

Short subjects Edit

  • Beatrice Lillie (1929) as Herself
  • Beatrice Lillie and Her Boyfriends (1930) Vitaphone Varieties short released 15 May 1930
  • Broadway Highlights No. 1 (1935) as Herself
  • Broadway Highlights No. 2 (1935) as Herself
  • Not Likely (1914) (London)
  • 5064 Gerrard (1915) (London)
  • Samples (1916) (London)
  • Some (1916) (London)
  • Cheep (1917) (London)
  • Tabs (1918) (London)
  • Bran Pie (1919) (London)
  • Oh, Joy! (1919) (London)
  • Now and Then (1921) (London)
  • Pot Luck (1921) (London)
  • The Nine O'Clock Revue (1922) (London)
  • Andre Charlot's Revue of 1924 (1924) (Broadway)
  • Andre Charlot's Revue of 1926 (1925) (Broadway and US national tour)
  • Oh, Please (1926) (Broadway)
  • She's My Baby (1928) (Broadway)
  • This Year of Grace (1928) (Broadway)
  • Charlot's Masquerade (1930) (London)
  • The Third Little Show (1931) (Broadway)
  • Too True to Be Good (1932) (Broadway)
  • Walk a Little Faster (1932) (Broadway)
  • Please (1933) (London)
  • At Home Abroad (1935) (Broadway)
  • The Show Is On (1936) (Broadway)
  • Happy Returns (1938) (London)
  • Set to Music (1939) (Broadway)
  • All Clear (1939) (London)
  • Big Top (1942) (London)
  • Seven Lively Arts (1944) (Broadway)
  • Better Late (1946) (London)
  • Inside USA (1948) (Broadway)
  • An Evening with Beatrice Lillie (1952) (Broadway and London)
  • Ziegfeld Follies of 1957 (1957) (Broadway)
  • Auntie Mame (1958) (replacement for Greer Garson) (Broadway and London)
  • A Late Evening with Beatrice Lillie (1960) (Edinburgh Festival)
  • High Spirits (1964) (Broadway)

She was the star of three radio programs:

  • The Beatrice Lillie Show on NBC 4 January – 28 June 1935
  • The Flying Red Horse Tavern on CBS 7 February – 22 May 1936
  • Broadway Merry-Go-Round on the Blue Network 6 January – 28 July 1937 [17]

In 1950 she appeared on The Star Spangled Revue with Bob Hope. [18] (This includes the "One Dozen Double Damask Dinner Napkins" sketch.)

  • 1945: New York Drama Critics Award for Best Femme Performance in a Musical – Seven Lively Arts
  • 1948: New York Drama Critics Award for Best Femme Performance in a Musical – Inside USA
  • 1953: Special Tony Award – An Evening with Beatrice Lillie
  • 1954: Sarah Siddons Award
  • 1958: Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical – Ziegfeld Follies of 1957 (nominee)
  • 1964: Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical – High Spirits (nominee)

For her contributions to film, in 1960 Beatrice Lillie was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6404 Hollywood Blvd. Her portrait, painted by Neysa McMein about 1948 or 1949, is in the collection of The Royal Central School of Speech and Drama in England. [19]


Anthony Morton Henley

Ближайшие родственники

About Col. Anthony Morton Henley, CMG, DSO

He was educated at Eton College, Windsor, Berkshire, England.

He graduated from Balliol College, Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, in 1895 with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.).

He was admitted to Inner Temple in 1898 entitled to practice as a barrister.

He fought in the Boer War, with Compton's Horse and Royal Scots Guards.

He gained the rank of Adjutant in 1903 in the service of the Scots Greys.

He gained the rank of GSO(3) between 1911 and 1913 in the service of the War Office.

He gained the rank of Brigade Major in 1913 in the service of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade.

He was Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for War in 1914.

He fought in the First World War, where he was mentioned in despatches.

He gained the rank of GSO(2) between 1914 and 1915.

He gained the rank of GSO(1) in 1915.

He was decorated with the award of the Companion, Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.) in 1916.

He gained the rank of Colonel in the service of the 5th Lancers.

He was invested as a Companion, Order of St. Michael and St. George (C.M.G.) in 1919.

He gained the rank of Honorary Brigadier General in the service of the Reserve of Officers.


5 Double ExposureSylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath was one of the 20th century&rsquos most influential writers. Although the majority of her work is poetry, Plath is perhaps most famous for her semiautobiographical novel, The Bell Jar.

Even so, Plath was not enamored with the book, describing it as &ldquoa pot boiler, really.&rdquo But she did not feel the same about her unfinished novel Double Exposure, which she described as &ldquohellishly funny.&rdquo [6]

Plath began writing Double Exposure, also tentatively titled DoubleTake or The Interminable Loaf, in 1962. By February 11, 1963, she had taken her own life, leaving behind 130 pages of the unfinished manuscript. What happened next is a matter of debate.

Those who had seen the outline for the book claimed that it was also semiautobiographical. This time, the book focused on a woman who found out that her husband was having an affair, much like Plath did. She had separated from her husband a short while earlier.

The estranged husband, Ted Hughes, admitted to burning one of her journals to protect her kids. But he made no such confessions about this book. He claimed to have heard some vague rumors about an unfinished book but assumed that Plath&rsquos mother had stolen it.

Just who is telling the truth remains unclear, but there is hope that the manuscript could surface again one day.


Idols of the Odeons

This book illuminates the personal experience of being at the centre of a media scandal. The existential level of that experience is highlighted by means of the application of ethnological and phenomenological perspectives to extensive empirical material drawn from a Swedish context. The questions raised and answered in this book include the following: How does the experience of being the protagonist in a media scandal affect a person’s everyday life? What happens to routines, trust, and self-confidence? How does it change the basic settings of his or her lifeworld?
The analysis also contributes new perspectives on the fusion between interpersonal communication that takes place face to face, such as gossip and rumours, and traditional news media in the course of a scandal. A scandal derives its momentum from the audiences, whose engagement in the moral story determines its dissemination and duration. The nature of that engagement also affects the protagonist in specific ways. Members of the public participate through traditional oral communication, one vital aspect of which is activity in digital, social forums.
The author argues that gossip and rumour must be included in the idea of the media system if we are to be able to understand the formation and power of a media scandal, a contention which entails critiques of earlier research. Oral interpersonal communication does not disappear when new communication possibilities arise. Indeed, it may be invigorated by them. The term news legend is introduced, to capture the entanglement between traditional news-media storytelling and oral narrative.


Births & Parish Baptisms

  • 1 July 1837 - Introduction of General Civil Registration of Births, Marriages and Deaths in England and Wales
  • Pre-1875 - an estimated 6 to 10% of births NOT registered
  • 1875 more rigorous enforcement of compulsory registration
  • September quarter 1837 to June quarter 1911 -- only first two full forenames, subsequent initials, registration district and reference number
  • September quarter 1911 to present -- only first forename, subsequent initials, registration district and number but also includes mother's maiden surname.

Personal life [ edit | edit source ]

In 1908 she married John Ernest Payne, a surgeon who had rowed for Cambridge University Boat Club in the Boat Race in 1899 and 1900, and stroked the winning Leander Club four in the Stewards' Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta in 1900. One son Kenneth Payne became an Olympic rower, and another Anthony Monck-Mason Payne became a professor of medicine at Yale University and an Assistant Director of WHO. Ε] Her brother, Henry Monck-Mason Moore, was Governor General of Ceylon.


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