Actress Franchise League

Actress Franchise League

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In 1908 two members of the Women's Social and Political Union, Bessie Hatton and Cicely Hamilton formed the Women Writers Suffrage League. Later that year the women formed the sister organisation, the Actresses' Franchise League. Elizabeth Robins, another highly successful actress and playwright, also became involved in both organisations. So also did the militant suffragette, Kitty Marion. Other actresses who joined included Winifred Mayo, Sime Seruya, Edith Craig, Inez Bensusan, Ellen Terry, Lillah McCarthy, Sybil Thorndike, Vera Holme, Lena Ashwell, Christabel Marshall, Lily Langtry and Nina Boucicault.

The first meeting of the Actresses' Franchise League took place at the Criterion Restaurant at Piccadilly Circus. The AFL was open to anyone involved in the theatrical profession and its aim was to work for women's enfranchisement by educational methods, selling suffrage literature and staging propaganda plays. The AFL neither supported nor condemned militancy.

Inez Bensusan oversaw the writing, collection and publication of Actress Franchise League plays. Pro-suffragette plays written by members of the Women Writers Suffrage League and performed by the Actresses' Franchise League included the play How the Vote was Won a play co-written by Christabel Marshall and Cicely Hamilton. Other popular plays included Votes for Women by Elizabeth Robins and Hamilton's A Pageant of Great Women. Membership of the AFL reached 550 by 1911.

In 1911 Edith Craig established the Pioneer Players. Under her leadership this society became internationally known for promoting women's work in the theatre. Ellen Terry was president of the Pioneer Players and Christabel Marshall contributed as dramatist, translator, actor and a member of the advisory and casting committees. One of the first productions of the group was In the Workhouse, a play written by Margaret Nevinson, one of the leaders of the Women's Freedom League (WFL). The play, based on a true story, told of how a man who used the law to keep his wife in the workhouse against her will. As a result of the play, the law was changed in 1912.

In December 1913 Inez Bensusan established the Women's Theatre Company, at the Coronet Theatre. The main objective of the organization was "to widen the sphere of propaganda still further by establishing a permanent season for the presentation of dramatic works dealing with the Women's Movement." According to Elizabeth Crawford, the author of The Suffragette Movement (1999): "It's first, and only, season was a success; its second was pre-empted by the outbreak of war."

On the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 the AFL, at the instigation of Lena Ashwell, launched the Women's Theatre Camps Entertainments, which travelled round camps and hospitals. On 13th March 1918 the AFL took part in the victory parade organised by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies.

St John's play (Christabel Marshall), The Wilson Trial, was directed by Edith Craig at the Royal Court on 14 December 1909. While collaboration was already a reality for St John and Craig, for others it was the women's suffrage movement which introduced them to different ways of working. St John found a co-author in Cicely Hamilton. They wrote plays such as How the Vote Was Won and The Pot and the Kettle. Craig directed the debut of How the Vote Was Won at the Royalty Theatre, London, on 13 April 1909, and subsequently in venues from the modest Corn Exchange, Stratford-upon-Avon (25 October 1909) to the Caxton Hall in London, where the WFL's Green White and Gold Fair was held in April 1909. Craig also acted in both plays: in How the Vote Was Won, she played Aunt Lizzie, drawing on the character-acting skills for which she had been commended in Frederick Fenn's A Married Woman. In The Pot and the Kettle, Craig performed the role of anti-suffragist, Mrs Brewster.

Suffrage Drama

The striking sights of women’s suffrage activism, their spectacular actions, banners and symbols, made an immediate impression on public consciousness. On both sides of the campaign, posters, cartoons and postcards deployed thought-provoking images accompanied by captions which re-created the dialogue between the characters depicted. Many women joining the campaign were alert to new ways of expressing the arguments for the vote, whether to convert others or explain to anxious or hostile relatives. The plays performed during the British women’s suffrage movement are usually more complex than the explicitly propagandist posters which hailed the spectator to take up only one available position. In the unfolding of plot and character through dialogue, various arguments for women’s suffrage could be set out for an audience already in agreement but in need of training in the arts of persuasion. Thus How the Vote Was Won and Mr Peppercorn’s Awakening transform the most unlikely males (or females such as the Daily Mail-reading Aunt in Our Happy Home) into supporters. The acerbic ending to How the Vote Was Won presents a difficult lesson: that the vote will only be achieved by legislative change by a majority of the members of an exclusively male parliament. Implicitly, the play reminds its audience, the end will be brought about by diverse motives, including self-interest.


The AFL had very specific means of accomplishing their goals. These were delineated in its first annual report as:

Literature, including plays and sketches by pro-suffrage writers, was sold at all AFL events. The AFL often collaborated with other suffrage groups, particularly the Women Writers&apos Suffrage League. Writers and dramatists in this group, like Cicely Hamilton, provided many of the plays and skits performed by the AFL. The two groups shared many of the same members. The AFL performed at WSPU’s Women’s Suffrage Exhibition in 1909 and then at WSPU’s Christmas Fair and Festival in 1911.

The AFL set up offices at 2 Robert Street, Adelphi, near Charing Cross Station, and had branches across Britain in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, and Eastbourne. [3] Representative of the AFL were present at all major events in the British suffrage campaign between 1909 and 1928. [3] Between 1909 and 1914, at least 120 suffrage plays were performed across the country. [3]

The AFL was active for over 50 years, well after the partial granting of women&aposs suffrage in 1918 and of equal suffrage in 1928. Early in the Second World War, the AFL began war work, holding events to support theatrical charities and formed the Women’s Adjustment Board, to help find employment for women during wartime. Representatives of the AFL and WAB sat on the advisory council of the Equal Pay Campaign Committee in the 1940s and 1950s and other members worked to raise funds for residential homes for both elderly women and men. The last event held by AFL was a ball at the Savoy Hotel in December 1958 to commemorate its fiftieth anniversary. [3]

Rumored teams [ edit ]

Prior to the franchising changes, ten teams had qualified from the 2017 NA LCS Summer season and Promotion tournament:

Rumored denied teams [ edit ]

Rumored selected teams [ edit ]

In a series of articles from ESPN and theScore esports, the following ten teams were rumored to have been accepted into the 2018 NA LCS season:

    ⎘]⎘]⎖]⎙]⎘]⎘]⎚] majority owner Joe Lacob and his son Kirk Lacob's team ⎛] branded as Golden Guardians⎜] esports division ⎝] branded as 100 Thieves⎞] esports division ⎟] branded as Clutch Gaming⎠] (originally Clutch City Gaming⎞] )

Immortals controversy [ edit ]

Controversy arose when it was reported on October 19, 2017 that Immortals had been rejected from the 2018 NA LCS selection process. The article came out just one week after the team had finished representing the NA LCS in the 2017 World Championship and upon hearing the news, members of the team reacted with shock on Twitter. ⎡] ⎢] ⎣] ⎤] ⎥] ⎦]

Having entered in the scene in late 2015 at the same time as Echo Fox (who was rumored to have been accepted in the same article) and having acquired a new investor in the months prior ⎧] , the news came as a surprise to most followers. Fans were further shocked when it was announced that FlyQuest, who only entered NA LCS at the beginning of 2017, was accepted over Immortals. Initially, it was reported this decision was due to Immortals' investment in Blizzard's Overwatch League and the conflict of interest between their Los Angeles team and the NA LCS studio location. It was later reported that Immortals had been declined due to concerns about their finances.

In the aftermath of the event, Immortals released Olleh from his contract ⎨] and it was rumoured that Team Liquid had acquired the contract rights to players Xmithie, Pobelter, Cody Sun and AnDa ⎩] . It was also reported that coach SSONG was picked up by Team SoloMid. ⎪] .

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Anglo-American affinities and antagonisms 1854–1936

Publication History:

This book addresses the special relationship from the perspective of post-Second World War British governments. It argues that Britain's foreign policy challenges the dominant idea that its power has been waning and that it sees itself as the junior partner to the hegemonic US. The book also shows how at moments of international crisis successive British governments have attempted to re-play the same foreign policy role within the special relationship. It discusses the power of a profoundly antagonistic relationship between Mark Twain and Walter Scott. The book demonstrates Stowe's mis-reading and mis-representation of the Highland Clearances. It explains how Our Nig, the work of a Northern free black, also provides a working-class portrait of New England farm life, removed from the frontier that dominates accounts of American agrarian life. Telegraphy - which transformed transatlantic relations in the middle of the century- was used by spiritualists as a metaphor for the ways in which communications from the other world could be understood. The story of the Bolton Whitman Fellowship is discussed. Beside Sarah Orne Jewett's desk was a small copy of the well-known Raeburn portrait of Sir Walter Scott. Henry James and George Eliot shared a transatlantic literary network which embodied an easy flow of mutual interest and appreciation between their two milieux. In her autobiography, Gertrude Stein assigns to her lifelong companion the repeated comment that she has met three geniuses in her life: Stein, Picasso, and Alfred North Whitehead.

1. Minnesota Timberwolves

Kevin Garnett of the Minnesota Timberwolves sits on the bench with his teammates | Stephen Dunn/Getty Images

The Timberwolves might not be the team that comes to mind when someone says “the worst franchise in NBA history” — that honor probably goes to the Clippers — but Minnesota has notoriously struggled over the years. Outside of a fun stretch where the team featured greats such as Kevin Garnett, Stephon Marbury, and Latrell Sprewell, the Timberwolves are the laughingstock of the NBA.

They made the playoffs eight consecutive seasons from 1997–2004, being eliminated in the first round every year until finally making a trip to the Western Conference Finals in 2004. But that was the last time the team made the playoffs. In fact they have not even had a winning season since 2004–05. Making eight trips to the playoffs in 26 years is a special level of incompetence.

Overall, the team has a franchise-winning percentage of .391, and it should come as no surprise that Garnett is the best player in team history, with 75.5 VORP. But even their top-10 list for VORP is somewhat pathetic, with Gorgui Dieng coming in at number 10 with 5.5.

Things are looking up, with Tom Thibodeau now running the organization from a basketball standpoint, but there’s no doubt that they’re No. 1 on this list for now.

Major League Baseball Team History

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Cincinnati Reds History
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Cincinnati Redlegs
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Houston Astros History
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Los Angeles Dodgers History
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St. Louis Cardinals History
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St. Louis Browns
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1 The “Theatrical Gossip” column of The Era reported the visit of “the distinguished author” and his entertainment by MPs at the House of Commons (The Era 9 October 1909), 16. In the same year, Brieux's False Gods was discussed as an example of superbly disguised “political drama” during a meeting of the O. P. Club, an organization founded in 1900 to promote and support interest in the drama. But the most fortunate sponsorship of Brieux came from G. B. Shaw's 1909 preface to the English version of Three Plays by Brieux, one of which, Maternité, was also translated by his wife, Charlotte.

2 R. Farquharson Sharp published a translation of three of his comedies in 1912, including the restored script of A Gauntlet. In his introduction, Sharp claims that the premiere of Björnson's restored script in his native Scandanavia caused the break up of hundreds of marriage engagements, which Norwegian authorities used to justify banning the play from the stage (The Era 8 February 1913), 14.

3 The AFL reorganized its various branches during the war, working sometimes with groups of professionals who had not been members. My attention is focussed primarily on the war work of what was formerly known as the AFL's Play Department, managed by Inez Bensusan. Michael Sanderson largely ignores The Theatre Camps Entertainments in his otherwise valuable history of the AFL's vast wartime work, including (ironically, given the paper's stance on suffrage) administering The Era's War Relief Fund and organizing and managing the Women's Emergency Corps, begun by Decima Moore, Eva Moore, Gertrude Kingston, and Lena Ashwell, for which Miss Ashwell received the OBE and Miss Decima Moore the CBE. As Sanderson notes, Dame May Whitty became the first British actress to be awarded the DBE for her work as “Madame Chair” of various AFL-related relief groups (164–70). Even an Actresses' Garden Club was affiliated to the League at this time through the directorship of Janette Steer (The Stage news clipping, 26 October 1916, Fawcett Library).


EJWTX64 on August 08, 2020:

Expand to Portland and Austin/San Antonio for 2026. Relocate A’s to San Jose (MLB needs to make San Jose joint Giants/A’s territory). Relocate Rays to Montreal. Realign teams & Divisions: AL West: Sea/Por/SJ/LAA AL SW: Hou/TXR/ASA/Col AL N: CWS/Clev/Det/KC AL E:NYY/Bos/Mtl/Tor - NL W: LAD/SF/SD/AZ NL N: CHC/Minn/Mil/StL NL E: NYM/Phil/Was/Bal NL S: Atl/Pit/Cin/Mia. To enhance regional play, teams play 18 gms in division = 54 gms teams play 5 games against other teams in league = 60 gms Regional Inter league divisions would play 6 gms = 24 gms (i.e. NL E vs AL E NL W vs AL W etc). Each year divisions would play one other interleague division (once every 3 years) = 24gms. Total 162 games. Cin/Clev and Phil/Pit would each play each other annually at least 6 games and would play 6 less games between their interleague divisional rivals and or interleague rotating division to maintain regional rivalries. This alignment should reduce travel, enhance regional rivalries and help attendance since regional rivalries would encourage nearby cities fans to travel. Expand playoffs to 8 teams in each league. Top two division winners would get 2 round bye to divisional series (best of 7). Next 2 division winners get a one round bye to the regional series (beat of 5). 4 wild card teams would play (best of 3). Season would start one week and half earlier with at least 2 double headers first week and season would end week and a half earlier to allow expanded playoffs to start earlier. Division winners have incentive to be on top two to get 2 round bye and other two division winners have incentive to avoid wild card and get one round bye. White Sox should consider relocating to Nashville.

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on August 02, 2019:

Alan Merrett: OK, I see. Actually the divisions are currently of equal size - six divisions with five teams each since 2013. But I guess my table showing the divisions may be a little confusing. I used one table to show this six-division lineup, but it probably would have been clearer to include a separate table for each realignment within the six divisions, or at least to use a second one to show the equal divisions as of 2013. I may have to revise the article to make that change. Thanks again for your comments.

Alan Merrett on August 02, 2019:

Vacancies just a word to describe where teams could be placed to bring up divisions of equal size

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on August 01, 2019:

Alan Merrett: Thanks for your comment. I don&apost quite understand what you mean by three "vacancies." But I definitely think you make a good point about team names and nicknames.

Alan Merrett on July 31, 2019:

There are basically three vacancies 2 in the NL and one in the AL.

Nashville should take the vacancy in the NL east. Portland and maybe San Antonio for the AL vacancies. There are plenty of teams around California, so a franchise in Texas would be more likely to find it profitable than another one in California.

This is assuming that that there are requests for a franchise that necessitate a team moving from one league to another,like Houston did.

I just hope there is strict control of names and nicknames of franchises. i.e that the location should have the name of the city of location and not some suburb.People outside the USA can easily identify and locate a city on a map . The other one would be strict control of the nickname. American sport excels in this in that the franchises usually come up with a nickname that is relevant to the city/area and without being cumbersome(it rolls off the tongue easily). You don&apost want some of the nicknames that you find in the PCL or IL like "isotopes" or "stripers" or worst of all "baby cakes". They sound like something from a cartoon.

Jeffgooch on July 03, 2019:

Align1. I agree with all you say, except I think the expansion teams will be Vegas and Charlotte.

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on May 23, 2019:

Thanks for your comment. I still favor Align 1&aposs Plan A, except I&aposd replace Montreal with Nashville for the NL expansion to preserve the Mets/Nationals rivalry. Admittedly that&aposs a personal preference due to my location and my rooting interest, but I also think it makes sense for MLB.

Commissioner without the Title on May 23, 2019:

Align1&aposs plan is spot on! The addition of Portland and Montreal make a ton of sense. If Portland does not work for some reason, substitute Las Vegas is its place and leave the rest of Align1&aposs plan in place.

Nathan on May 13, 2019:

First of Portland, Oregon has already been mentioned in the past. The city has already had talks with MLB and so has Nashville, Tennessee.

There are 8 cities I think MLB will look at for one of the 2 expansion spots if they are interested:

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on December 13, 2017:

Align 1: Thank you for your comments and the very interesting proposals.

I would prefer plan A, both because I like the idea of smaller divisions and because I&aposd like to maintain the integrity of the existing two leagues. My only qualm with the proposed assignment of the teams is personal: I admit that geographically the plan makes sense, but as a transplanted NY Mets fan in the Washington DC area, I like the fact that the Mets and Nats are in the same division, because it means the Mets visit DC relatively often.

Maybe the NL could expand to Nashville instead of Montreal, put Nashville in the Southeast Division, and keep Washington with the Mets and the Pennsylvania teams in the Northeast Division.

What would you envision as the playoff format for the two plans?

Align1 on December 13, 2017:

MLB Expansion/Realignment Proposal #2

PLAN B - 4 Large 8-Team Divisions - Intermix AL & NL Teams in Each Division

Revise RINGOLSBY PLAN in 4 ways:

1) Disallow 2-team East markets in same division (Chi., N.Y., D.C.).

2) Equally intermix 4 AL & 4 NL teams in each division (to balance DH rule).

3) Move Minnesota to West Conf. & Chicago Sox to East Conf.

4) AL teams keep DH, NL teams maintain no DH. Home field rules.

AMERICAN LEAGUE: (15 unchanged teams & 1 expansion team)

NATIONAL LEAGUE: (15 unchanged teams & 1 expansion team)

Atlantic Div: Boston, N.Y. Yankees, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Tampa Bay, Miami

Northeast Div: Chicago Sox, Detroit, Cleveland, Toronto, Montreal, N.Y. Mets, Philadelphia, Washington

Central Div: Colorado, Minnesota, Milwaukee, Chicago Cubs, St. Louis, Kansas City, Texas, Houston

Pacific Div: Seattle, Portland, Oakland, San Francisco, L.A. Dodgers, L.A. Angels, San Diego, Arizona

Align1 on December 13, 2017:

MLB Expansion/Realignment Proposal

PLAN A - 8 Small 4-Team Divisions - Separate AL/NL Leagues

AMERICAN LEAGUE: (15 unchanged teams & 1 expansion team – YES designated hitter)

Toronto, Boston, N.Y. Yankees, Baltimore

Comments: 4 of 5 rival teams grouped most closely together from previous East Division.

Minnesota, Chicago Sox, Detroit, Cleveland

Comments: 4 of 5 rival teams grouped most closely together from previous Central Division.

Tampa Bay, Houston, Texas, Kansas City

Comments: Houston/Texas rivalry maintained, while they escape the remote west coast teams from previous West Division. Kansas City good fit w/ Texas teams, Kansas City & Texas have a past history being division rivals together. Southeastern team Tampa Bay is a little closer to/less remote with Houston, Texas & Kansas City than it was in previous East Division w/ northeastern teams N.Y. Yankees, Toronto & Boston, respectively. Tampa Bay closer to Houston than it is to Baltimore.

Seattle, Portland, Oakland, L.A. Angels

Comments: All 4 teams a natural fit together, including expansion Portland, which provides a strong natural rival w/ remote Seattle & fills a geographical void between Seattle & Oakland.

NATIONAL LEAGUE: (15 unchanged teams & 1 expansion team – NO designated hitter)

Montreal, N.Y. Mets, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh

Comments: N.Y. Mets/Philadelphia rivalry maintained from previous East Division. Expansion Montreal a nice fit here. Pittsburgh a natural fit with cross-state rival Philadelphia.

Washington, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Miami

Comments: Washington/Atlanta/Miami rivalries maintained from previous East Division. Cincinnati & Atlanta have a past history being division rivals together. Atlanta is closer to Cincinnati than it is to Washington. Washington a good team for Cincinnati to begin a division rivalry with. Remote Miami has the 3 closest League teams with it in division.

Colorado, St. Louis, Chicago Cubs, Milwaukee

Comments: 3 of 5 rival teams grouped most closely together from previous Central Division. Colorado an adequate fit here.

San Francisco, L.A. Dodgers, San Diego, Arizona

Comments: 4 of 5 rival teams w/ best natural fit together from previous West Division.

Frank Lebel on June 22, 2017:

Absolutely fascinating and easy to read. Thanks

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on April 20, 2012:

mlbkranks - Thank you for reading and commenting. I understand your frustration about the Houston move. I&aposm sure I&aposd feel the same way if my favorite team (the Mets) changed leagues. The move does leave a geographical void, as you&aposve pointed out. I think the new setup with two wild cards might prove interesting, though, since the one-grame playoff will provide more incentive for a team to win its division rather than settling for the wild card.

mlbkranks on April 20, 2012:

i hate 2 see the astros move 2 the a.l. ive always pulled 4 them 2 be in the world series vs texas. not only will that not take place but it will make it tough 2 want 2 attend their games being in the same division with texas and the closest n.l. team 2 dallas becomes. st.louis. 600 miles away! i HATE interleague games and the wild card!! they take away from the world series, divisional races (as 2 win the division) and unbalanced schedules.

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 18, 2011:

This hub has been updated to reflect the announced move of the Houston Astros to the AL West Division in 2013 and the addition of a second wild card team in each league.

Do you think more interleague play -- the result of the Astros&apos move -- will be a good thing?

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 03, 2011:

Thanks, Cogerson. I&aposve been lurking for a while but haven&apost had time to write anything new. I guess the Seattle Pilots and the first incarnation of the Milwaukee Brewers share the distinction of being the franchises with the shortest tenure in one location, with one season each. I never saw the Expos in Montreal, but I did see them a couple of times when they played the Mets in New York. I did see a Blue Jays game in Toronto, but that&aposs my only experience with baseball in Canada.

UltimateMovieRankings from Virginia on November 03, 2011:

First of all. great to see you back on hub pages. Secondly I loved reading your well researched hub on basball relocations. It is good to see the Seattle Pilots getting some attention. they had only one season. but that season lives on in the pages of Ball Four by Jim Bouton. Speaking of another franchise that is no longer there. I used to watch the Expos when they played at Jarry Park Stadium. I remember good old Barry Foote hitting a homerun that beat the Cardinals back in 1975(he only hit 57 in his whole career). I have never been able to forget those homeruns.

Anyway enough of my baseball memories. great hub that you have written . that I found extremely fun to read. voted up and very awesome.

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 03, 2011:

Thanks, Gay. I appreciate your visit.

gay redcay on November 03, 2011:

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 02, 2011:

Thanks for reading and sharing, ugagirl66. Hope your husband enjoys it. Best, Brian

Regina Harrison-Barton from South Carolina on November 02, 2011:

Sharing this with my husband. Great hub!

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 02, 2011:

Thanks, Teri. I will look for your stadiums article on Suite 101. Best, Brian

Teri Silver from The Buckeye State on November 02, 2011:

Interesting and well-written. I love baseball and its history (I wrote an article on old stadiums, published on Suite101). Thumbs up!

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 02, 2011:

Jason, I&aposm a NY Giants fan but I&aposll be interested in reading your Raiders hubs too. Catfish33, I would favor the symmetry of a 32-team league. I think there&aposs enough talent to go around. Maybe the Carolinas and Las Vegas?

Jeffrey Yelton from Maryland on November 01, 2011:

Very nice. I maintain that MLB should expand to 32 teams, and have 8 4-team divisions. I would put a new team in the Carolinas for one, and Vancouver for another.

JasonCulley from Cheyenne, WY on November 01, 2011:

I am working on some articles about football history but it is more centered around one team, the Oakland Raiders.

Brian Lokker (author) from Bethesda, Maryland on November 01, 2011:

Thanks for reading, Jason. I&aposd like to learn more about football history too.

JasonCulley from Cheyenne, WY on November 01, 2011:

Great article Brian. I love the history of all sports, especially baseball and football.

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