The Mystery of the Great Sphinx

The Mystery of the Great Sphinx


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Buried for most of its life in the desert sand, an air of mystery has always surrounded the Great Sphinx, causing speculation about its age and purpose, method of construction, concealed chambers, role in prophecy, and relationship to the equally mysterious pyramids. Much of this theorizing is to the despair of Egyptologists and archaeologists, who, reasonably it seems to me; only give credence to theories that are backed up by tangible evidence.

The Mystery of the Great Sphinx

Facing the rising sun, the Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about 10 km west of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile River. Later Egyptian rulers worshipped it as an aspect of the sun god, calling it Hor-Em-Akhet (“Horus of the Horizon”). The Sphinx sits in part of the necropolis of ancient Memphis, the seat of power for the pharaohs, a short distance from three large pyramids – the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

The monument is the largest surviving sculpture from the ancient world, measuring 73.5 m in length and in parts 20 m in height. Part of the uraeus (sacred cobra which protected from evil forces), the nose and the ritual beard are missing; the beard is now displayed in the British Museum. The extensions at the side of the head are part of the royal headcloth. Although the head of the Sphinx has been badly affected by thousands of years of erosion, traces of the original paint can still be seen near one ear. It is thought that originally the Sphinx's face was painted dark red. A small temple between its paws contained dozens of inscribed stelae placed by the Pharaohs in honour of the Sun god.

The Pharaoh's Dream

The Sphinx has suffered greatly from the ravages of time, man and modern pollution. In fact, what has saved it from complete destruction is the fact that it has been submerged beneath the desert sand for most of its life. There have been various attempts to restore the Great Sphinx over the millennia, beginning in c. 1400 BCE with the pharaoh Tuthmosis IV. After falling asleep in the shade of the Sphinx when out hunting, the pharaoh dreamt that the great beast was choking from the sand engulfing it, and that it told him if he cleared the sand he would obtain the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. In between the front paws of the Sphinx is a granite stela, now called the “Dream Stela”, which is inscribed with the story of the pharaoh's dream.

Archaeologists believe that the wall was built by Tuthmosis IV after his dream to protect the Sphinx from the desert winds.

Towards the end of 2010 CE, during routine excavation work in the area of the monument, Egyptian archaeologists discovered large sections of mudbrick walls which were part of a larger wall which stretched for 132 meters (433 feet) around the Great Sphinx. The archaeologists believe that the wall was built by Tuthmosis IV after his dream to protect the Sphinx from the desert winds.

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After the clearing ordered by Tuthmosis IV, and despite the wall, the colossal sculpture once again found itself beneath the sand. When Napoleon arrived in Egypt in 1798 CE, he found the Sphinx without its nose. 18th century CE drawings reveal that the nose was missing long before Napoleon's arrival; one story goes that it was the victim of target practice in the Turkish period. Another and perhaps the most likely explanation, is that it was pried off by chisels in the 8th century CE, by a Sufi who considered the Sphinx a sacrilegious idol. In 1858 CE, some of the sand around the sculpture was cleared by Auguste Mariette, the founder of the Egyptian Antiquities Service, and between 1925 and 1936 CE, French engineer Emile Baraize excavated the Sphinx on behalf of the Antiquities Service. Possibly for the first time since antiquity, the Great Sphinx was once again exposed to the elements.

Who does the Great Sphinx Depict?

The explanation for the enigmatic sculpture favoured by most Egyptologists is that Chephren, a Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, had the stone shaped into a lion with his own face at the same time as the construction of the nearby Pyramid of Chephren, around 2540 BCE. However, there are no inscriptions anywhere that identify Chephren with the Sphinx, neither is there mention anywhere of its construction, which is somewhat puzzling when considering the grandness of the monument. Despite many Egyptologists' claims to the contrary no-one knows for sure when the Sphinx was built or by whom.

In 1996 CE, a New York detective and expert in identification concluded that the visage of the Great sphinx did not match known representations of Chephren's face. He maintained that there was a greater resemblance to Chephren's elder brother Djedefre. The debate is still continuing. The mystery of the Sphinx's origin and purpose has often given rise to mystical interpretations, such as those of English occultist Paul Brunton and, in the 1940's CE, controversial American psychic and prophet Edgar Cayce.

The Great Sphinx was excavated from a relatively soft, natural limestone, left over in the quarry used to build the Pyramids; the forepaws being separately made from blocks of limestone.

One of the main oddities about the sculpture is that the head is out of proportion to its body. It could be that the head was re-carved several times by subsequent pharaohs since the first visage was created, though on stylistic grounds this is unlikely to have been done after the Old Kingdom period in Egypt (ending around 2181 BC). Perhaps the original head was that of a ram or hawk and was recut into a human shape later. Various repairs to the damaged head over thousands of years might have reduced or altered the facial proportions. Any of these explanations could account for the small size of the head in relation to the body, particularly if the Great Sphinx is older than traditionally believed.

The Dating of the Great Sphinx

There has been lively debate in recent years over the dating of the monument. Author John Anthony West first noticed weathering patterns on the Sphinx that were consistent with water erosion rather than wind and sand erosion. These patterns seemed peculiar to the Sphinx and were not found on other structures on the plateau. West called in Geologist and Boston University professor Robert Schoch, who, after examining the new findings, agreed that there was evidence for water erosion.

Although Egypt is arid today, around 10,000 years ago the land was wet and rainy. Consequently West and Schoch concluded that in order to have the effects of water erosion they found, the Sphinx would have to be between 7,000 and 10,000 years old. Egyptologist's dismissed Schoch's theory as highly flawed; pointing out that the once prevalent great rain storms over Egypt had stopped long before the Sphinx was built. More seriously, why were there no other signs of water erosion found on the Giza plateau to validate West and Schoch's theory? The rain could not have been restricted to this single monument. West and Schoch have also been criticised for ignoring the high level of local atmospheric industrial pollution over the last century, which have severely damaged the Giza monuments.

Someone else with his own theory behind the Sphinx's date is author Robert Bauval. Bauval published a paper in 1989 CE showing that the three Great Pyramids at Giza, and their relative position to the Nile, formed a kind of 3-D 'hologram' on the ground, of the three stars of Orion's belt and their relative position to the Milky Way.

Along with Fingerprints of the Gods author Graham Hancock, Bauval developed an elaborate theory that the Sphinx, its neighbouring pyramids and various ancient writings, constitute some sort of astronomical map connected with the constellation Orion. Their conclusion is that the best fit for this hypothetical map is the position of the stars in 10,500 BCE, so pushing the origin of the Sphinx even further back in time. This date is understandably disputed by Egyptologists, as not a single archaeological artefact dated to that period has ever been discovered in the area.

Secret Passageways?

There are various legends of secret passages associated with the Great Sphinx. Investigations by Florida State University, Waseda University in Japan, and Boston University, have located various anomalies in the area around the monument, although these could be natural features. In 1995 CE, workers renovating a nearby parking lot uncovered a series of tunnels and pathways, two of which plunge further underground close to the Sphinx. Robert Bauval believes these are contemporaneous with the Sphinx itself. Between 1991 and 1993 CE, while examining evidence for erosion at the monument using a seismograph, Anthony West's team found evidence of anomalies in the form of hollow, regularly shaped spaces or chambers, a few metres below the ground, between the paws and at either side of the Sphinx. No further examination has been allowed.

Today, the great statue is crumbling because of wind, humidity and the smog from Cairo. A huge and costly restoration and preservation project has been underway since 1950 CE, but in the early days of this project cement was used for repairs which was incompatible with the limestone, and so caused additional damage to the structure. Over a period of 6 years over 2,000 limestone blocks were added to the structure and chemicals were injected into it, but the treatment failed. By 1988 CE the sphinx's left shoulder was in such a state of deterioration that blocks were falling off. At present restoration is still an ongoing project under the control of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, who are making repairs to the damaged shoulder and attempting to drain away some of the subsoil. Consequently, today the focus is on preservation rather than further explorations or excavations, so we will have to wait a long time yet before the Great Sphinx gives up her secrets.


Who Built the Great Sphinx?

The Great Sphinx is an iconic piece of history that’s just as remarkable as it is mysterious. From its enormous size to its intricate detail, it’s nothing short of an astounding architectural feat.

Who built the Great Sphinx and why? How, exactly, was such a large-scale and magnificent structure constructed? What is the significance of the Sphinx — a mythical creature with a lion’s body and a human face?

While there are plenty of questions, one thing is certain: The Great Sphinx offers no shortage of details to explore.


A History of the Great Sphinx of Giza

When the ancients first came into the contact with this statue, a massive creature with the body of a lion and the head of a man they called it a Sphinx. In Greek mythology a sphinx is a winged creature with the body of a lion and the head of a woman. Gender differences withstanding the name Sphinx has been applied to the lion-man statue at Giza and to all similar statues found in Egypt.

What name the Egyptians originally gave the Sphinx is unknown. The earliest Egyptian writings mentioning the Sphinx come from almost a millennium after its original building and refer to it by several names: Hor-em-akht (Horus in the Horizon), Bw-How (Place of Horus) and Ra-horakhty (Ra of Two Horizons).

No other sphinx statue found in Egypt is either as old or as large as the Great Sphinx of Giza. It stands 65 feet tall, 20 feet wide and an astounding 260 feet long. Estimates of its weight (not precisely known) range upwards of 200 tons, making it one of the largest single stone sculptures in the world.

Origins of the Great Sphinx of Giza

Who Built the Great Sphinx?

Most dates for the Great Sphinx of Giza place the time of its building during the 4th Dynasty of Egypt in the 3rd millennium BCE. It is believed by most that the sphinx was built by the pharaoh Khafre, and that the face seen on the Sphinx is carved in his image.

Some have argued that the Sphinx was actually built by Khafre’s father Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, largest pyramid of the world. More recently there has been speculation and some evidence that the statue was actually built by Khafre’s nephew, a lesser known pharaoh by the name of Djedefre. As of yet there has been no conclusive evidence found to prove once and for all who built the Great Sphinx or whose image is recorded in the face.

How was the Great Sphinx Built?

Although we refer to the building of the Great Sphinx the word “build” is somewhat of a misnomer. The Great Sphinx was not actually built but carved straight into the limestone bedrock on which it stands. Limestone was removed from the area block by block until only a single very large block was left, from which the Great Sphinx was carved.

The surrounding blocks of limestone were used in various construction projects around the Giza plateau. The limestone surrounding the head was stronger and more solid and most likely went into building the pyramids. The lower, softer limestone surrounding the body of the Sphinx most likely was used in building the two temples that lay directly in front of the Sphinx.

History of the Great Sphinx of Giza

For all its glory the history of the Great Sphinx has been that of a forgotten and neglected monument. From the time of its original carving it has spent most of its life buried to the neck by sand.

The first restoration of the Sphinx came about 1400 BCE. The pharaoh Thutmose IV, sleeping beneath the head of the statue, was told in a dream to dig up the body of the Sphinx. In reward he was told he would be made a great king. Thutmose immediately began digging up the Great Sphinx, restoring it to its former glory. He also left evidence of this activity in what is called the Dream Stele, locating between the Sphinx’s paws.

Despite Thutmose’s restoration the Sphinx was once again neglected and buried by sand. Although travelers from across the world saw the face of the Sphinx, it was not until the turn of the 20th century that the statue would once again be uncovered and restored, a process that took decades to complete.

The Sphinx’s Missing Nose

One of the most notorious features of the Great Sphinx is its missing nose. Many interesting theories have been brought forward to explain its disappearance. One tale has it that the nose was blown off by a cannon fired by one of Napoleon’s soldiers during his Egyptian expedition.

Another popular tale is that the nose was accidentally blown off during target practice by Turkish Janissaries sometime during the Turks rule over Egypt. Neither of these stories appears to be true, however, as evidence has shown that the nose was missing long before either of these time periods.

An Egyptian historian by the name of al-Maqrizi, writing in about the 15th century, says that the nose was destroyed by a Sufi fanatic by the name of Muhammad Sa’im al-Dahr. Enraged by the lifelike representation of a human face, something that is expressly forbidden by Islam, Sa’im al-Dahr ordered the nose removed.

Some evidence suggests that this may very well be the case, as it appears that two bars were inserted into the nose and used as levers to pull it off, most likely sometime between the 10th and 15th centuries. Al-Maqrizi dates the removal of the nose as 1378 CE.

Legacy of the Great Sphinx

The Great Sphinx of Giza stands as one of the lasting symbols of Egypt from ancient times to the present day. It is almost synonymous with Egypt, along with the pyramids, and is one of its most recognizable symbols.

Although buried for millennia, it today is restored and preserved by Egypt, and is one of that country’s most popular tourist attractions. Despite its somewhat mysterious origins, it is a larger-than-life monument to the greatness of Egypt.


“Everybody knows” Herd Mentality

So what was the Sphinx before it had that guy’s face carved on it? Well, to figure that one out you have to try to figure out what the Sphinx was before that pharaoh got his chisels on it. This draws one’s attention to the flat back. “Everybody knows” that the Sphinx has the body of a lion. As soon as I hear that “everybody knows” something, I know that it must be wrong. I have a pathologically anti-herd mentality. All you have to do is tell me “everybody knows” something, and I will instantly disbelieve it. That is because crowds are always wrong. Crowds have about as much sense as a mollusc.

I started from the premise that the Sphinx was not a lion at all. Millions of people see it every year, from all over the world, and they all “know” that it is a lion. So that means that it cannot possibly be one. They “know” it is a lion because they have been told that it is a lion. The Germans were told that Hitler was their saviour and so they “knew” it, the Russians all “knew” that Stalin was like a gentle father, who would look after them. Yes, everybody, or at least everybody they knew, “knew” these things. And people also all once “knew” that the Earth was flat, and that the Sun went round the Earth. Those things were all “known.” But were they true?

If it wasn’t a lion, what was it? Well, it had to be an animal with a straight back, with no huge chest, and no mane. It also had to be an animal that crouched like that with its legs stuck out in front of it. (There is no use looking too closely at the paws, as they are completely covered in restoration stones, and have been shaped to look like “what everybody knows,” in order to re-confirm the consensus falsehood which everybody has agreed to believe in.)


Decoding the Actual Age of the Great Sphinx

Posing as a sentinel on the Giza plateau is the weathered and colossal figure that stands 66 feet above the desert sand, the Great Sphinx, a limestone sculpture with the head of a lion and the body of a human. While we now know much about the history and mythology of the ancient Egyptians, the mystery of the Sphinx has yet to be truly unraveled.

An ongoing battle between mainstream Egyptologists and a more recent wave of independent thinkers debates the age of the Sphinx by thousands of years. The latter insists the imposing limestone statue is much older than mainstream archaeologists, and Egyptologists claim it to be.

Mainstream archaeologists determined the Sphinx to have been built between 2558 and 2532 BCE. But in 1992, John Anthony West rocked the scientific community with his claim that the Sphinx was actually carved 10,000 years earlier before Egypt was a desert. West and others argued that academia had overlooked an important detail—the body of the sculpture bore distinct markings of water erosion.

After his assessment of the Sphinx’s age, West found fellow scientists who shared his observation about uncovering an entirely different history than was commonly accepted. West’s search led him to Robert Schoch, a geology professor at Boston University, willing to pursue an open-minded, out-of-the-box investigation into the origins not only of the Sphinx but the entire region, as well as its implications for the origin of the human species.

In Gaia’s original series, Ancient Civilizations , Schoch explains his first encounter with the figure in 1990, at which time he immediately noticed there was a disconnect between the statue’s academically accepted date of origin and the truth staring him in the face. Upon careful inspection, Schoch realized the Sphinx survived intensely wet weather conditions that stand in stark contrast to the now hyper-arid conditions of the Sahara Desert.

Schoch concluded that academia had determined the Sphinx’s age by overlooking signs of erosion due to heavy rainfall. The deluge that eroded the Sphinx was uncommon to the Egyptian plateau 5,000 years ago, but very common 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. For Schoch, this was an exciting find, but for mainstream science, it was met with derision and denial.


John Anython West Explains the Mystery of the Sphinx…

John Anthony West was my mentor. I had the opportunity to travel to Egypt many times but my best experience was studying under him.

I learned a great deal about the symbolist school of Egypt and it’s esoteric aspects. Seeing Egypt through the eyes of a symbolist helps to develop a new dimension of understanding that often eludes the Egyptologists…

With conviction, John Anthony West believed that everything we know about ancient history has to be completely rethought. Given the evidence of his “water erosion theory” in the Great Sphinx enclosure, I think his point is one worthy of academic consideration.

John Anthony West discovered a lead in the last line of a paragraph in a work published by French occultists, R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz that changes everything know about the dating of the Sphinx thus creating a mystery.

In this video we go on-site between the paws of the Sphinx with John Anthony West, who provides an explanation for the Mystery of the Sphinx on-site in Egypt.

This video was captured by me during one of John Anthony West’s intensive study trips in Egypt. I can tell you first-hand that nothing compares to traveling to Egypt on a Magical Egypt Tour with the late John Anthony West. This is as close as I can get you without actualy traveling to Egypt.

Watch the video and you’ll feel like you are right there!


Essay abut the history of the great Sphinx, its mystery and secrets.

"Stars fade like memory the instant before dawn. Low in the east the sun appears, golden as an opening eye. That which can be named must exist. That which is named can be written. That which is written shall be remembered. That which is remembered lives. In the land of Egypt Osiris breathes. "

I believe many people on Earth are now wondering about different things: unsolved mysteries, breathtaking myths, abnormal features, etc. Many of us who knows at least a little bit about Egypt, Sphinx and Giza Pyramids, are swallowed by those mysterious monuments, because non of us know for sure what really happened and when. I wish I could be in that mystifying place and watch from the far how the Great Sphinx was built. I wish I could be one of those scientists who got to see the inside treasure of that famous statue and Pyramids of Giza.

Some scientists believe that Sphinx was built around 2500 B.C., at the same time three Great Pyramids of Giza were constructed. No doubt there is a connection between all those mysterious and perfect work of architecture. Is the Sphinx of prehistoric origin? Why was it built? In this provocative, rigorously argued report, revisionist Egyptologists Graham Hancock, author of Fingerprints of the Gods, and Robert Bauval, author of The Orion Mystery, join their hard work to answer many questions along the way while they examine the Sphinx, or like it was called by Egyptians - Harmarchis, which means 'Horus-in-the-Horizon', and its relation to the other monuments of the Giza plateau. They put together a book - The Message of the Sphinx: a Quest for the Hidden Legacy of Mankind, which was published by Three Rivers Press, New York in 1996.

In this exciting account of historical and archaeological investigation, the.

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The riddle of the Sphinx: An unsolved ancient mystery

©MRU

Nobody really knows the actual purpose of the Sphinx. It is the oldest giant structure in Egyptian history, and is thought to have been built around 4,500 BC. Many believe that the Great Sphinx was built to watch over the plateau of Giza, serving a symbolic purpose.

©MRU

The Sphinx was built facing due east, meaning that it aligns with the rising sun every day. Some later Egyptians would worship it, calling the Sphinx “Hor-Em-Akhet” meaning “Horus of the Horizon.” Today, the origin, the purpose and the legends of the Sphinx have left behind a number of intriguing riddles to be solved for humanity.

What Is A Sphinx?

A sphinx (or sphynx) is a creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human, with some variations. It is a prominent mythological figure in Egyptian, Asian, and Greek mythology.

In ancient Egypt, the sphinx was a spiritual guardian and most often depicted as a male with a pharaoh headdress—as is the Great Sphinx—and figures of the creatures were often included in tomb and temple complexes. For instance, the so-called Sphinx Alley in Upper Egypt is a two-mile avenue that connects the temples of Luxor and Karnak and is lined with sphinx statues.

Sphinxes with the likeness of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut also exist, such as the granite sphinx statue at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the large alabaster sphinx at the Ramessid temple in Memphis, Egypt.

From Egypt, the sphinx imported to both Asia and Greece around 15th to 16th century BC Compared with the Egyptian model, the Asian sphinx had eagle wings, was frequently female, and often sat on its haunches with one paw raised in depictions.

In Greek traditions, the sphinx also had wings, as well as the tail of a serpent—in legends, it devours all travellers unable to answer its riddle.

The Riddle Of The Sphinx

According to Greek mythology, the Sphinx sat outside of Thebes and asked this riddle to all travellers who passed by. If the traveller failed to solve the riddle then the Sphinx would kill them. If the traveller answered the riddle correctly, then the Sphinx would destroy herself.

The Riddle

“What goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three feet in the evening?”

Answer

Man goes on 4 feet in the morning (crawling as a baby), 2 feet at noon (walking upright throughout most of life), and 3 feet in the evening (using a cane in old age).

Legend has it that Oedipus was the first person to answer it correctly. No one was ever capable of answering correctly until one day, Oedipus came along. Oedipus was promised the hand of the princess should he interpret the riddle correctly.

As he was famous for his wisdom, Oedipus found the answer to the riddle with ease, replying: “Man, who as a baby crawls on four legs, then walks on two legs as an adult and in old age walks with a cane as his third leg…”

The Sphinx became so frustrated about this answer that she committed suicide immediately, throwing herself from a high rock.

But it was not the only riddle of Sphinx Oedipus had to solve. In Sophocles’ play, probably the most famous retelling of the story, there’s mentioned only this riddle, but some versions of the Oedipus story have a second riddle for him to solve.

A Gascon version of the myth, for instance, has the Sphinx posing this follow-up question:

“There are two sisters: one gives birth to the other and she, in turn, gives birth to the first. What are they?”

Answer

The answer to this second riddle was also simple, which Oedipus easily solved saying, Day and Night.

How Old Is the Sphinx?

The most common and widely accepted theory about the Great Sphinx suggests the statue was erected for the Pharaoh Khafre (about 2603–2578 BC).

Hieroglyphic texts suggest Khafre’s father, Pharaoh Khufu, built the Great Pyramid, the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in Giza. When he became Pharaoh, Khafre constructed his own pyramid next to his father’s.

Though Khafre’s pyramid is 10 feet shorter than the Great Pyramid, it is surrounded by a more elaborate complex that includes the Great Sphinx and other statues. Residues of red pigments on the face of the Sphinx suggest the statue may have been painted.

Other theory suggests that the vertical weathering on Sphinx’s base, which could only have been caused by long exposure to water in the form of heavy rains. It so happens that this area of the world experienced such rains ― about 10,500 years ago.

Another baffling study titled, “Geological Aspect of the Problem of Dating the Great Egyptian Sphinx Construction” suggests that the Sphinx could be around 800,000 years old! It was the period when the territory of Giza was under the Mediterranean sea. Though, all these fascinating theories have been disputed by most of the mainstream scientists.

Thutmose IV’s Dream

The statue of the Great Sphinx began to fade into the desert background at the end of the Old Kingdom, at which point it was ignored for centuries.

As time passed the statue was given less attention and, after a few centuries, desert sands covered the Great Sphinx up to its neck. Legends claim that visitors would press their ear to the statue’s lips seeking wisdom. Around 1400 BC, an Egyptian prince, on a hunt, came to rest in the shadow of the Sphinx.

While napping he heard the Sphinx tell him it would make him ruler of Egypt ahead of his older brothers if he promised to clear the sand away. On waking the prince vowed to keep the bargain. Sure enough, as the story goes, he ascended the throne as Pharaoh Thutmose IV and quickly had the statue uncovered.

Historians believe that Thutmose IV concocted the dream to cover up the murder. Thutmose had his brother killed so that he could gain the crown. While the Egyptian people might not have been able to forgive Thutmose the slaying for personal gain, they could overlook it if it seemed like it was the will of the gods.

By the 19th century, when European archaeologists started taking a close look at Egyptian monuments, the statue was again covered up to its neck in sand. Efforts to uncover and repair the statue were undertaken early in the 20th century. Preservation work continues even today.

Hidden Passageways In The Sphinx?

There have been rumours of passageways and secret chambers surrounding the Sphinx and during recent restoration work, several tunnels have been re-discovered. One, near the rear of the statue, extends down into it for about nine yards. Another, behind the head, is a short dead-end shaft. The third, located mid-way between the tail and the paws, was apparently opened during restoration work in the 1920s, then resealed.

It is unknown whether these tunnels were constructed by the original Egyptian designers, or were cut into the statue at a later date. Many scientists speculate they are the result of ancient treasure hunting efforts.

Several attempts have been made to use non-invasive exploration techniques to ascertain if there are other hidden chambers or tunnels in the Sphinx. These include electromagnetic sounding, seismic refraction, seismic reflection, refraction tomography, electrical resistivity and acoustical survey tests.

Studies, made by Florida State University, Waseda University (Japan), and Boston University, have found “anomalies” around the Sphinx. Now many scholars have seen the possibilities of secret passageways and chambers into the Sphinx.

These could be interpreted as chambers or passageways, but they could also be such natural features as faults or changes in the density of the rock. Egyptian archaeologists, charged with preserving the statue, are concerned about the danger of digging or drilling into the natural rock near the Sphinx to find out if cavities really exist.

Despite close studies, much about the Great Sphinx remains unknown. There are no known inscriptions about it in the Old Kingdom, and there are no inscriptions anywhere describing its construction or its original purpose. In fact, we do not even know what the builders of the Sphinx actually called their creation. So the riddle of the Sphinx remains, even today.


Cultural and Genetic Exchange

In a recent paper on DNA and mitochondrial genome research of early Egyptian populations, the authors conclude that because of its close proximity to Africa, Asia, and Europe, “ from the first millennium BCE onwards, Egypt saw a growing number of foreigners living and working within its borders and was subjected to an almost continuous sequence of foreign domination by Libyans, Assyrians, Kushites, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks and Brits. The movement of people, goods and ideas throughout Egypt’s long history has given rise to an intricate cultural and genetic exchange and entanglement, involving themes that resonate strongly with contemporary discourse on integration and globalization.”

It appears that geneticists have determined that, for thousands of years, ancient Egypt was a society made up of multi-racial communities, living, working, and interacting with one another as a cohesive group. Why is it so hard for Egyptologists to accept the possibility of an African or even Asian pharaoh from an earlier epoch?

It appears that the ethnically diverse experiment that is the United States of America is not new after all. Racial diversity has been cultivated in different parts of the world for thousands of years.

Cliff Dunning is an archeo-investigator, author, and host of the popular History podcast, Earth Ancients: Startling New Discoveries from our Planets Distant Past. |www.earthancients.com

Top Image: The ancient and mysterious Sphinx, Giza, Egypt. ( Public Domain )Deriv


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