Context for this 1871 humorous map of Europe?

Context for this 1871 humorous map of Europe?


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The following map is from (circa) 1871, according to this source, and it was published in Bologna, Italy. Could you please provide some context for it? Parts of the map are self evident, as for example the reference to the Alabama Claims, but others not so much (the fashionable crocodile in Turkey, for example).

Larger version, from this blog post (a few other interesting maps there).


This is a rough translation (work in progress). Notice that the text is rhymed, and some of it (I find ) it is illegible.

2 Norway and Sweden Loving to make progress these nations both they advance in the art of lazy bones

3 Finland Even among bears the priestly tail Attempts to place herself and summon factions But only those nations accept it Where fools and ignorants are trendy

4 Ireland Like the donkey with the habit to walk close to the cliff hedge And either comes back because of the staff or ends up down the cliff Likewise the problem seeking priest mashes water in the mortar; And he can be seen in glory and joy What a fool!… Lo mash! Mash!

If the meaning of 4. seems obscure, you are in good company. Perhaps it refers to the futility of Ireland's politics. Arguably the Catholic Irish did not approve the Italian conquest of the Papal States (1870).

5 Great Britain or Scotland and England England, master of civilty Gain teaches, (biting?) theory Showing that civilized in this age is only who has straight face and good tooth She deceives and can trick the other countries Long live the civilt; long live the English.

8 Poland Tied in shackles, at the feet of her tyrants The name of Nation honours her no more… She can't rise up! She can't avenge herself Who carries like a mule, deserves to be beaten

Poland is the woman chained to Austria, Prussia and the Russian Nobleman.

9 Denmark Why this Nation, among many alone, is despised? She's not an ignorant one

11 Russia Let the world fall and be destroyed, Let the Czar eat everything Iron, fire, tooth and fang Shall not leave an inch of it The feral eye revolves around What a pity!… what a rumpus!… But to sweeten the destruction There's now the Constitution To show that the Autropofagus* Has a heart in his esofagus; [Because he knows that malice can (illegible) justice] And the animals from Lapland Already see themselves as Liberals Long live him, that sees everything!… Long live the fool that believes to him

  • I think that this is a pun, because the Czar was called the Autocrat (from the Byzantine Autocrator, tranlating Latin Imperator). It might be also Antropofagus, but I seem to read a genuine "u" rather than "n".

The Russian nobleman (I think) has Poland on a chain. At his feet, the serfs rejoice for the recent abolition of the feudal serfdom (Czar Alexander)

Could you please provide some context for it?

I think that it depicts Europe as seen by an Italian nationalist. The author obviously approves the recent (1870) Italian annexation of Rome. This is evident from what he says about "priests" and how he says that.

Italy is the woman with long hair and white/turquoise dress, laying down a bear trap. The woman in the centre is Rome, that embraces/shields herself the coat of arms of the Savoy kings (of Italy). She feeds bread to a dog who is chained to the Papal seat: it is in fact on this chain that the pope tripped.

The text about Italy is difficult to decipher. The last two verses are:

And Italy prepares the wolf to the most sacred Crusade, where they will hold a parade.

The French "monster" is dead (Sedan, 1870) and smaller monsters rejoice over this fact. One of them is clearly a priest, the other a republican. Great Britain is despised, probably for her meddling in Sardinia and Sicily (23)

The map is certainly filled with irony against other people struggling for their independence. Greece watches in a mirror looking for her long lost teeth; other nations in the Balkans are depicted as sheep: Serbia, Bosnia, Albania, Bulgaria


I think if there would be some Italian guy here and could translate all the sentences, it would be easier. Here's my try.

In Algeria the Arab man represents French problems there.

Of course Russia is bad so it is represented as an ugly butcher. Poland is divided by three states (notice chains).

There are fightings in Balkans. The man kicking is probably Romanian and his opponent is Hungary. They are fighting for Transylvania.

Rest of Balkans is still a part of Turkey, but they are guarded not by a shepherd, but a scarecrow. I think the crocodile represents Turkish control over Dardanelles, you can't cross river when there are crocodiles in it. They are slow on land, but very dangerous on water.

In Italy the Pope is overthrown from his chair by Savoy dynasty.

In Corsica there is still a monument of Napoleon.

In Portugal the king could be a military's puppet.

German sacks of money could be a French contribution after 1870 war, as there is a Prussian soldier "eating" Alsace and Lorraine and drinking French wine. Because the cannon has "Divina Providenza" written it can be reference to German claims in world or just Prussian in Germany.

The three-headed dragon in France could be monarchy (which is adored by clergy and nobility or bourgeois), but will be thrown by a woman, Marianne I think.

And as I wrote in my comment, such cartoon maps were very popular in 19th century, here and here (in the middle of the page) be the examples.


Key point:

Although there were some impressive economic achievements Bismarck’s domestic polices were at times divisive and repressive. They failed to unite all of the German people behind the new state.

During the reign of Kaiser William I (1871-1888), Bismarck (nicknamed the Iron Chancellor) was the most powerful man in the Empire and completely dominated the government of the Reich.

The following elements of his domestic policy will be examined:

  • Political Parties
  • The Constitution of the Second Reich.
  • The “Kulturkampf”
  • Economic change
  • Bismarck's attempts to curb the growth of socialism.

Main Political Parties in the Second Reich

SPD Centre Party Progressive Liberals National Liberals Free Conservatives Conservatives
Party wished to see a socialist state in Germany. Persecuted but received the largest number of votes from 1890 onwards. Very popular in the newly expanding towns Party represented Catholics and national minorities such as the Poles. It cut across class boundaries and drew support form all elements of German Catholic society. Middle Class party that split from the National Liberals. Favoured constitutional reform. Supported the anti-clerical measures against the Catholic Church Dominant party of the early years of the Second Reich. Middle Class party. Favoured anti-Clerical measures and Free Trade Party of big business. Politically the closest to Bismarck This party represented the interest of the Junker class. Strong in Prussia. Over represented in the Reichstag

The Constitution:

Prussia dominated the new Germany that was called the Second Reich. It covered two thirds of the land area and contained the same proportion of the population. It had practically all the industry.

The new constitution drawn up by Bismarck was a Federal system.

Each of the twenty-five states had considerable control over their affairs and decided their own form of government e.g. Bavaria and Saxony were ruled by kings.

Under the constitution there were to be three branches of the Federal government:

  1. The Presidency which was held by the King of Prussia (as German Emperor). The German Emperor had considerable powers. He had personal control of the armed forces. He appointed and dismissed all ministers including the Chancellor.
  2. The Federal Council (or Bundesrat) represented the different states of the Empire. It had fifty-eight members. Seventeen were from Prussia, six from Bavaria, four from Saxony. It had the power to change the constitution. However no change could be made to the constitution if fourteen delegates objected. This in practice meant that Prussia could always stop change.
  3. The Parliament or Reichstag was elected by Universal Male Suffrage (all males over 25 could vote) and Secret Ballot. It voted on the Federal budget and its consent was needed for all legislation. This was the most advanced system in Europe at this time.

However, the powers of the Reichstag were limited:

  • It could not initiate legislation.
  • It had no say in the appointment or dismissal of the Chancellor or Imperial ministers. The Imperial Chancellor was appointed by the Emperor. He was in charge of foreign policy.
  • The Kaiser (in effect Bismarck) could dissolve it any time with the agreement of the Bundesrat.

The Kulturkampf (the Struggle for Civilisation)

After unification about two-thirds of Germans were Protestant (mainly Lutheran) while about one-third were Catholics.

Reasons for the Kulturkampf:

  1. The largest party in the Reich were the National Liberals. Their philosophy opposed all institutions that placed restraints on the freedom of the individual. They saw Rome as their natural enemy. In 1864 the Pope Pius IX had strongly condemned Liberalism throughout Europe. The doctrine of Papal Infallibility (1871) further alarmed Protestant opinion and placed a question mark over the loyalty of Catholics to the new Empire.
  2. Catholics were traditionally pro-Austrian and this was a further cause for suspicion about their loyalty. Bismarck, although not anti-Catholic himself, believed that German Catholics could give only some of their allegiance to the German state and must reserve some part of their loyalties to a non-German authority (the Pope). He harassed Catholicism as a "state within a state."
  3. The Catholic Centre party (Zentrum) was founded in 1870 to defend the interests of Catholics within the new Reich. Bismarck was alarmed at the formation of a party that seemed to give its allegiance to Rome, and not to the Reich. The support of national minorities for the party further confirmed this fear.
  4. As a Prussian, Bismarck was intolerant of the Polish minority in the East of Germany. He was annoyed that the Church encouraged the use of the Polish language in areas that were predominantly Polish.

The main battleground was control of education. It is important to remember that this was a struggle waged by the both the Reich and state governments. The main states involved were Prussia, Baden and Hesse.

The May Laws

In 1871 the Catholic division of the Prussian Ministry of Culture was abolished. A leading anti-clerical, Adalbert Falk was appointed as minister and in 1872 the Jesuits were expelled from Germany.

The following year, the "May Laws" were introduced by Falk in Prussia.

  • The state was given control over education.
  • They extended State control over the education of the clergy. They laid down required subjects for ordination.
  • It decreed that candidates for the priesthood had to attend a German University for three years before entering a seminary.
  • Civil Marriage was introduced.
  • The power of the Papacy in Germany was undermined when disciplinary authority over the Church was given to state agencies e.g. civil appointment of Bishops.

The reaction of the Catholic Church

In 1874 when the Church refused to accept the validity of these laws the government responded with even more severe restrictions on the power of the Church. A law in May gave the Prussian government the power to expel all clerics who did not meet the requirements set in 1873. It authorised the state to fill vacancies.

However elections to the Reichstag showed that these policies had failed to weaken the Zentrum who won 95 seats. The laws had convinced many Catholics that a separate party was necessary for the defence of their interests.

In 1875 the Pope issued an encyclical that declared all the measures invalid. The state responded by cutting off all financial aid to Bishops until they recognised the laws. All monastic orders except those engaged in medical work were expelled from Prussia.

For Catholics Prussia became a police state. Many Bishops and priests were imprisoned including the Archbishop of Posen, the Archbishop of Cologne, and the Bishop of Treves and others were expelled from Prussia. A total of 1400 parishes - one third of those in Prussia - were left without priests.

The End of the Kulturkampf

However many Germans, including the Kaiser and the Crown Prince, were concerned about the effects of these policies upon the moral-fabric of the nation.

Conservative Protestants were uncomfortable about civil marriage and state control of education. Others feared the consequences of the wholesale alienation of the Catholic population. Bismarck himself was becoming uneasy.

In 1878 the death of Pope Pius IX and the election of the conciliatory Leo XIII opened the way for compromise. Leo wrote to the Kaiser expressing his hope for friendly relations with Germany. Bismarck also began to tire of his National Liberal allies and viewed the Zentrum as possible future allies. The two issues of socialism and protectionism had become more important.

As Carr wrote “the time had come for the chancellor to cut his losses before the Empire was seriously weakened by a campaign that had only succeeded in deepening the confessional divisions in Germany.

In 1879 Bismarck acted and Falk was dismissed. Most of the "May Laws" were dismantled in the following years except for those relating to state schools and civil marriage. The struggle left Catholics with a distrust of the state that was to last for years. It also embittered Polish-German relations.

The Economy

The period directly after unification was one of economic prosperity for Germany. The Crash of 1873 slowed this growth but the 1880s saw the economy pick up again. Large sums of money were invested in technological development. Germany led the way in the sciences and her industry enthusiastically adopted the new scientific developments of the period.

Successful innovations included:

  • The invention of the internal combustion engine (1876)
  • Electric train (1879)
  • Telephone network introduced into Berlin (1881)
  • Four Wheel Cars were patented by Daimler and Benz

As a result production increased dramatically in the textile, coal and steel industries. By 1900 Germany rivalled the more-established British economy as Europe’s largest.

The table below shows some of the impressive growth in these years:

Germany's population also expanded rapidly, growing from 41 million in 1871 to 50 million in 1891. The rapidly industrializing economy changed the way this expanding population earned its livelihood. By the 1880s a majority of Germans were living in towns rather than in the countryside. There was a continued flight of people from the rural East to the towns of the west. This rapid pace of industrialisation contributed to the growth of the SPD.

A major economic issue was the question of tariffs. Traditionally Prussia and Germany had favoured Free Trade. Big business and the large landowners wished to see their introduction. Tariffs were opposed by the National Liberals. In 1879 in response to a well organised political pressure and competition from cheap agricultural imports, Bismarck abandoned Free Trade and introduced tariffs.

Bismarck and Socialism

The creation of a large working class led to the growth of socialism. Bismarck saw the socialists as a threat to the social and political unity of the Reich and to Europe. He accused them of being un-German and greatly disliked the international nature of the movement. As Carr notes "Socialism like Catholicism had allegiances beyond the Nation state which Bismarck could neither understand nor tolerate".

In 1869 various socialist groups had joined together to form the Social Democratic Party (SPD). In 1875 at a party congress at Gotha the party drew up its programme. This called for the state to take over industry and the sharing of profits among workers. In 1878 the SPD had twelve seats in the Reichstag (although their representation was greatly underestimated due to the fact that rural constituencies were much smaller than urban ones). There were two attempts on the life of the Kaiser in that year. Using these attacks as an excuse, Bismarck introduced anti socialist laws.

The Anti-Socialist Laws

The Law deprived socialist organisations of the right of assembly and publication (of the 47 socialist newspapers, 45 were banned).

It also gave the government the power to expel persons from their residence who could be described as agitators. Although SPD deputies were allowed to sit in the Reichstag in effect socialism was banned in Germany. All Trade Unions associated with the SPD were also crushed. In 1880 the SPD, now in effect an underground organisation, met in Switzerland to resist Bismarck's measures. A new socialist newspaper was published in Zurich and smuggled into Germany.

Social Welfare Reform

However Bismarck realised that socialism could not be defeated by harsh measures alone. He knew that policies were needed to improve the position of workers in Germany so as to erode support for the socialists. Williamson wrote that he wanted “to reconcile the working classes to the authority of the state.”

In 1883 he introduced a measure that gave compensation to workers during illness.

In 1884 an Accident Insurance law was introduced to compensate workers injured at work. In 1889 an Old Age Pension scheme was introduced for workers over seventy.

Although he failed to curb growing SPD support the measures were very constructive and helped to improve the life of most ordinary Germans. They were twenty years ahead of Britain in the area of Social Welfare. As Massie noted “Bismarck had given the German working class the most advanced social legislation in the World.”

Fall from Power

In 1888 Kaiser William I died and was succeeded by his son Frederick who died of cancer after ninety days. He was succeeded by William II (aged 29) who was determined to assert his authority and take a more active role. In 1889 he received a deputation of striking miners against the advice of the chancellor. The elections of 1890 went badly for Bismarck. He attempted to introduce a new anti-socialist bill. The Bill was defeated in the Reichstag with William II opposed to the law.

Bismarck was beginning to lose control of events and ordered ministers not to see the Kaiser without consulting him first. William demanded that he rescind this order or resign. Bismarck managed to give the impression that he disagreed with the Kaiser on a foreign policy issue and resigned. After Bismarck's resignation (March) the anti-socialist laws were allowed to lapse.

He retired to his estate where he attacked the policies of Kaiser William and his ministers. He hoped to be asked to return to power but the summons never came and he died in 1898.

Assessment

Bismarck was idolised by millions of Germans who rejoiced in his successful policy of unifying Germany. He towered over his contemporaries “a giant among pigmies” (Carr). Like all great men he had his personality defects. He was petty, vindictive and ruthless in his treatment of those who stood in his way.

No other German exerted so profound an influence on German history in the 19th century. When he came to power Germany was a collection of states when he left office Germany was a united nation feared and respected by the Great Powers.

He undoubtedly committed many blunders especially in his handling of the Church and the working class and his defence of the interests of the Junker class. Yet on the other hand he helped to promote the modernisation of Germany and was responsible for a social welfare system which gave working people some limited stake in the survival of the Empire.


William Carr: A History of Germany

These materials may be freely used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with applicable statutory allowances and distribution to students.
Re-publication in any form is subject to written permission.


Historical Events in 1871

    1st Negro lodge of US Masons approved, New Jersey Formation of the first Rugby Union at a meeting at Pall Mall restaurant, London, England US income tax repealed Paris surrenders to Prussians Millions of birds fly over western San Francisco, darkening the sky Jefferson Long of Georgia is first African American to make an official speech in US House of Representatives (opposing leniency to former Confederates) Federal fish protection office authorized by US Congress Meeting of Alabama claims commission 2nd Enforcement Act gives federal control of congressional elections in US J Milton Turner named US minister to Liberia

Henry Morton Stanley's Expedition to Africa

Mar 21 Journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his famous expedition to Africa

    Otto von Bismarck elevated to rank of Fürst (Prince) 33rd Grand National: Irish 1868 winner The Lamb claims second GN at 11/2 ridden by Tommy Pickernell William Holden of North Carolina becomes 1st governor removed by impeachment Municipal elections bring revolutionaries to power in Paris to form Commune government 1st international rugby union match - Scotland 1, England 0 at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh San Francisco Art Association holds open reception at 430 Pine

Event of Interest

Mar 29 Royal Albert Hall opened by Queen Victoria in London

    New Constitution adopted by the German Empire William Hammond Hall's maps & surveys of Golden Gate Park accepted Canada sets denominations of currency as dollars, cents, & mills US 3rd Enforcement Act (President can suspend writ of habeas corpus) All German Jews emancipated after the German Constitution adopted by its last state Bavaria Blossom Rock in San Francisco Bay blown up The Camp Grant Massacre of Apaches in Arizona Territory, perpetrated by white & Mexican adventurers 144 die

Event of Interest

May 17 Native American fighter General William T. Sherman escapes from the Comanches in an ambulance

Event of Interest

Jun 3 Jesse James & his gang robs Obocock Bank (Corydon Iowa), of $15,000

    5th Belmont: W Miller aboard Harry Basset wins in 2:56 Sinmiyangyo: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 Marines in naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island, Korea Hurricane kills 300 in Labrador Phoebe Couzins is 1st woman graduate of a US collegiate law school Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of Mystic Shrine founded, NYC The University Tests Act allows students to enter the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham without religious tests, except for courses in theology Ku Klux Klan trials began in federal court in Oxford, Mississippi Guatemala revolts for agrarian reforms The decimal currency system is made uniform in Canada Jesse James robs bank in Corydon, Iowa ($45,000) Trial against Kiowa chief Satanta (White Bear) and Big Tree, begins World's first championship cat show Organised by Harrison Weir and held in Crystal Palace, London

Event of Interest

Oct 2 US Mormon leader Brigham Young arrested for bigamy

    Fisk Jubilee Singers begin 1st national tour 16-hour fire injures 30 of Chicago's 185 firefighters Forest fire destroys Peshtigo, Wisconsin, killing between 1,200 and 2,500 people, making it the deadliest wildfire in recorded history Great Fire of Chicago kills 200 people and destroys over 4 square miles (10 square km) of buildings and the original Emancipation Proclamation

Great Chicago Fire

Oct 10 The Great Chicago Fire is finally extinguished after 3 days, leaving approximately 300 dead, 100,000 homeless, and costing $222m in damage

    US President Grant condemns Ku Klux Klan The Delphic Fraternity is founded as the Delphic Society at the State Normal School in Geneseo, New York. Great Britain annexes Griqualand, South Africa

Event of Interest

Oct 17 US President Ulysses S. Grant suspends habeas corpus in parts of South Carolina during prosecutions against Ku Klux Klan

    1st US amateur outdoor athletic games (NY) Replacement yacht Sappho (US) beats Livonia (UK) by 25:27 in race 5 to win 3rd America's Cup off Newport, RI 4-1 original defender Columbia damaged so misses races 4 & 5 Mob in Los Angeles, California hangs 18 Chinese

Event of Interest

Oct 27 Democratic leader of Tammany Hall NY, Boss Tweed is arrested after the NY Times exposes his corruption

    Philadelphia Athletics beat Chicago for 1st National Association baseball pennant Founding of Netherland Protestant Union in Dokkum Cameroon reaches coast of Angola after trip through Africa

'Dr. Livingstone, I presume?'

Nov 10 Henry Morton Stanley encounters David Livingstone at Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa, with the immortal words 'Dr Livingstone, I presume?'


1870 to 1879 Important News, Key Events, Significant Technology

The Franco-Prussian War , Bismarck's influence on the German states leads to a year long conflict in which France is defeated. There can be no doubt of Prussia's dominance over the now unified Germany, and the war has ended France's presupposed hegemony over European affairs. Napoleon III had taken the advice of his military advisors and declared war on Prussia on July 19th , and his assumption of the French army's abilities was negated by Bismarck's ability to bring Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg into his alliance of the northern states. His political and military skills would lead to the Prussian Wilhelm I being made emperor of Germany (on January 18th 1871).

John D. Rockefeller , John D. Rockefeller forms the Standard Oil of Ohio company. By 1890, Standard Oil controlled 88% of the refined oil flows in the United States. John D. Rockefeller was a founder, chairman and major shareholder, and the company made him the richest man in modern history.

Congress Creates The U.S. Department of Justice , The U.S. Department of Justice is responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice headed by The Attorney General.

Congress Adopts the Fifteenth Amendment , The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3rd , 1870. What is interesting is no mention was made of gender and it took another 50 years to guarantee women's right to vote with the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.

Can Opener , 60 years after the Tin Can is invented, William Lions of Connecticut invents an efficient can opener.

British Colombia Becomes Part of Canada , British Colombia becomes part of Canada. On having been seen by Captain Cook in his look for the northwest passage, the area was mostly commonly used by fur traders. Finally recognized as an imperial territory by Britain it was named British Colombia in 1858 , and became part of Canada in 1871.

The Albert Hall , The Albert Hall is in London's South Kensington and was completed in 1871. It had been built in commemoration of Queen Victoria's husband Prince Albert. Designed by George Scott, it was intended to promote the period's arts and sciences, and commonly performed musical concerts. It is fronted by the Albert Memorial and close to the Victoria and Albert Museum. Concerts have been performed there by Wagner, Rachmaninov and Elgar (as well as later musicians).

Congress Passes The 1871 Indian Appropriation Act , This act ended the practice of the US government viewing Native American tribes, and lands as separate countries.

Great Chicago Fire , The Great Chicago Fire started on Sunday, October 8, and burned for three days before it finally burned itself out Tuesday, October 10, 1871. It killed hundreds and destroyed about 2,000 acres in the central business district, including hotels, department stores, Chicago's City Hall, the opera house and theaters, churches and printing plants, in other areas thousands of homes were destroyed leaving 90,000 homeless. Supposedly it started by a cow kicking over a lantern in a barn owned by Patrick and Catherine O'Leary, or Daniel "Pegleg" Sullivan, igniting some hay in the barn while trying to steal some milk, or Louis M. Cohn may have started the fire during a craps game.

Third Force Act Also Known as the "Ku Klux Act" Passed , Congress authorizes President Ulysses S. Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organizations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

Yellowstone National Park , Partly in Montana, Wyoming and Idaho, the Yellowstone National Park was appointed the United States' first national park on March 1st, 1872. It covers more than three and a half thousand square miles of plateaus, mountains and valleys. The park's fossils, lava flows, volcanic remains, forests and other mountainous features such as its hot springs and geysers (like Old Faithful) have made it a national treasure.

Montgomery Ward Begins First Mail Order Catalog , Montgomery Ward begins distributing a dry goods mail-order Catalog to rural customers offering wide selection of items unavailable to them locally. By 1883 , the catalog, which became popularly known as the "Wish Book", had grown to 240 pages and 10,000 items.

Mary Celeste Mystery , Crew from the Dei Gratia, a small British brig, spot the Mary Celeste, a brigantine merchant ship at full sail near the Azores Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The ship was seaworthy, its stores and supplies were untouched, the personal belongings of passengers and crew were still in place, including valuables but not a soul was on board.

Japanese Calendars , In 1873 the Japanese started to use the Gregorian calendar as well as the one that was based on the emperor's years of rule (with 1873 being Meijing 6). Before this, they had received lunar calendars from China.

Blue Jeans , Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patent "Blue Jeans", using heavy duty cotton cloth and copper rivets they produce trousers that are virtually indestructible aimed at Miners, Farmers, Mechanics and cattle raisers. They were called originally "Copper Riveted Overalls".

First Impressionist Exhibition , The artists that had gathered their inspiration from Édouard Manet's art had submitted their own work to the Exposition des Impressionistes that took place in Nadar's salon in Paris. There were pictures by Renoir, Sisley, Monet, Pissaro, Morisot, Guillaumin, Cézanne and Degas. The name Impressionism had come from Monet's 1872 Impression: Sunrise that was shown at the Musée Marmottan and copied into Louis Leroy's article in Le Charivari magazine.

First Commercial Barbed Wire , Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois, received a patent for modern barbed wire in 1874 after he made his own modifications to previous versions.

Republican Elephant , The republican elephant started when a political cartoonist (Thomas Nast) who did not think President Ulysses S. Grant should run for a third term had a cartoon published in Harper's Weekly in 1874 depicting the Republican Party as a stampeding Elephant.

1920's Fashion

Ladies Dresses From The Decade

Part of our Collection of Childrens Clothes From the Decade

Childrens Toys From The 1920's

1920s Music

Palo Duro , The U.S. Army attacks the Kiowa, Cheyenne and Comanche tribes at Palo Duro, Texas. The dissidents are made to register at Forts Darlington, Sill and Reno. The Kiowa, under Satanta, had surrendered to the Darlington Agency in 1874, and the Comanche at Fort Sill on June 2nd , 1875.

First Kentucky Derby , On May 17, 1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the First Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs, Louisville, Kentucky.

The Little Bighorn/Custer's Last Stand , The Battle of the Little Bighorn took place a week after General Crook's retreat from Rosebud Creek, when the Sioux, Cheyenne, Lakota, Arapaho and others fell on George Custer's 7th Cavalry on June 25th . The Indians, whose amalgamated tepees could show that there were about two thousand braves, attacked Custer's squadrons at Little Bighorn. Reno and Benteen's parts of the 7th suffered heavily, but were not wiped out. The Indians fled on the arrival of Terry and Gibbons' more numerous soldiers, but have retained their name for the Bighorn's slopes, " which is 'the greasy grass'. There is some debate on where exactly the 'last stand' took place, with Custer's body not actually having been found around his men. The greasy grass might have been in Wyoming and not Montana.

First Practical Telephone , Patent 174,465, was issued to Alexander Graham Bell on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically . by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound".

Great Sioux War Of 1876 - 1877 , The Great Sioux War/Black Hills War was a series of battles and negotiations in the Montana Territory and Dakota Territory between the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, and the United States between 1876 and 1877. The Indian Chiefs included Crazy Horse (Oglala Lakota Tribe), Sitting Bull (Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux), Little Wolf (Cheyenne) and Dull Knife (Cheyenne).

Practical Internal Combustion Engine , Nikolaus August Otto builds the first practical four-stroke cycle Internal Combustion Engine. Like all inventions before and since each inventor builds on knowledge gained from earlier inventions or multiple inventors working far apart who come up with similar inventions, so often it depends on the researcher and research material available to make the decision of who and when.

Queen Victoria's Appointment as Empress of India , Queen Victoria's appointment as Empress of India was made on India having been formally made into part of the British Empire. There is some debate on whether this was made as a comparison to the Russian and German imperial titles, or that it would allow a degree of hierarchy to permeate the British rule of the Indian nobles.

Sitting Bull , In January, Crazy Horse had fought Brigadier General Miles at the Battle of Wolf Mountain in what was to become Montana. Mills had remained in the field over winter in order to avenge Custer. In May, Sitting Bull had taken his people into Canada as a sanctuary against an American reprisal on Little Bighorn, but the Canadians would provide the necessities that the American reservations would offer. He was forced to surrender in 1881 with a tribe that was becoming handicapped by the lack of food and clothing.

The Phonograph , Thomas Alva Edison announced his invention of the first phonograph, a device for recording and replaying sound, on November 21st , 1877.

The "Molly Maguires" , Ten members of the Irish Miners Group The "Molly Maguires" were hanged for murder, the hangings brought about an end to the group as members now feared for their lives and loved ones lives. "Molly Maguires" were a group of Irish anthracite miners who were fighting for better working and living conditions in the coal fields of Pennsylvania, and were considered militant union activists but to understand the whole story my advice is look up "Molly Maguires" on your favorite search engine to gain a better perspective of the whole story.

Ready Made Mixed Paints , After thousands of years where paint is mixed by on the spot, two Americans (Henry Sherwin and Edward Williams) begin selling premixed paints in cans.

The Second Afghan War , British troops entered Afghanistan on November 21, 1878 to circumvent the Russian movements onto that side of the Hindu Kush. The British forces moved across the country and made an agreement to not to move further than they had, and were able to secure their ability to prevent any further encroachments from the Russians. Sher Ali's regent, Yaqub, agreed to allow the British a control of the region's foreign affairs. The Political resident in Kabul, Sir Louis Cavagnari was killed shortly after his arrival in scenes that were reminiscent of the First Afghan War and the troops moved back along the Khyber Pass. Unlike the earlier war, the uprising was contained and the troops reentered Kabul. Yaqub's power was taken away from him. The Second Afghan War had claimed about two and a half thousand British lives, and the troops returned to their placatory positions. They installed Abdur Rahman as emir and confirmed Yaqub's Treaty of Gandamac. The British were left in control of the same territories and retained their control of Afghanistan's foreign policy. After a period, and the payment of a subsidy, the British withdrew.

19th Amnedment The Nineteenth Amendment's text was drafted by Susan B. Anthony with the assistance of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and was first introduced Nineteenth Amendment Timeline

Isandhlwana and Rorke's Drift Zulus Attack , Isandhlwana and Rorke's Drift took place in South Africa on the 22nd and 23rd of January. The initial defeat had cost the lives of about 1,700 men, and whilst they had been attacked by nearly 20,000 Zulus it had made their colonial rule seem less tenable. The rearguard of the Zulu army went on to attack the 120 men that were left at the outstation of Rorke's Drift without success. It has become an extremely favorable demonstration of the British Army's ability to face insurmountable odds, and the larger forces went on to derogate the Zulu fighting forces at Ulundi.

Incandescent Light Bulb , Thomas Alva Edison filed his first patent application for "Improvement In Electric Lights" on October 14, 1878 (U.S. Patent 0,214,636). The first successful test was on October 22, 1879, and lasted 13.5 hours. Historians list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Thomas Edison but Edison's, although not first light bulb, is considered to be the first practical incandescent lamp.

1st Woolworth 5 Cents Store Opened , Frank Winfield Woolworth opens the Great 5 Cents Store in Utica, New York. Pledging to sell "nothing" that cost more than a nickel expanding over the next 50 years to 1000 stores, but due to changes in the retail market the last Woolworth's shop in the United States was closed down on July 17th , 1997.

First Cash Register , James Ritty and John Ritty patent the first cash register in Dayton Ohio as "Ritty's Incorruptible Cashier", it was later sold and became "The National Cash Register Company" NCR.


The defeat of Austria in the Seven Weeks’ War

The war that followed in 1866 was a resounding Prussian victory which radically changed a European political landscape which had remained virtually the same since the defeat of Napoleon.

Many of Prussia’s rival states had joined Austria and been cowed and defeated, and the Empire then turned its attentions away from Germany in order to restore some of its severely battered prestige. The ethnic tensions that this move created would later kick-start World War One.

The battle of Konniggratz by Georg Bleibtreu (1866). The Prussian King Wilhelm I, Bismarck and General Moltke observe one of the largest battles in history up to that point. On 3 July 1866, about 180,000 Austrians and 200,000 Prussians faced each other. 1,500 guns were used.

Prussia, meanwhile, was able to form the other beaten states in North Germany into a coalition which was effectively the beginnings of a Prussian Empire. Bismarck had masterminded the whole business and now reigned supreme – and though not a natural nationalist he was now seeing the potential of a fully united Germany ruled by Prussia.

This was a far cry from the heady dreams of the earlier intellectuals, but, as Bismarck famously said, unification would have to be achieved, if it was to be achieved, by “blood and iron.”

He knew, however, that he could not rule a united country dogged by infighting. The south remained unconquered and the north was only tenuously under his control. It would take a war against a foreign and historic enemy to unite Germany, and the one that he had in mind was particularly hated across Germany after Napoleon’s wars.


38 Maps They Didn’t Teach You At School (Part II)

When we collected a list of 40 cool maps that you would never have seen in school, you guys loved them, so we&rsquore back with more. If interesting world maps are one of the main ways that we understand the world we live in (and how people elsewhere in the world live), then it&rsquos no surprise that people are always coming up with new ways to use them to display information.

Every single one of these interesting maps reveals different fun and surprising facts, from which we can make some curious inferences. There&rsquos usually a no better way to illustrate the economic, social and cultural differences between different parts of the world than by displaying them on a map.

However, it&rsquos also important not to jump to conclusions with these world maps &ndash whether a country ranks well or poorly in a particular metric can be due to a whole number of factors, some of which we understand and some of which we don&rsquot. Information without context should be taken with a grain of salt.

So, have you ever wondered where in the world the most and least photos are taken? How is the human population or economic production distributed across the globe? These maps &ndash some of which are new and some of which are old favorites &ndash intuitively answer questions like these.

If you like what you see, check out the rest of our thought-provoking map-related posts as well. Do you know of any cool maps that we haven&rsquot seen before?

NOTE: Studies like these, while entertaining or interesting, are not always 100% accurate. Leading questions and limited sample sizes are just a few of the data gathering problems that could be present in funny maps like these.


John Maynard Keynes predicts economic chaos

At the Palace of Versailles outside Paris, Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles with the Allies, officially ending World War I. The English economist John Maynard Keynes, who had attended the peace conference but then left in protest of the treaty, was one of the most outspoken critics of the punitive agreement. In his The Economic Consequences of the Peace, published in December 1919, Keynes predicted that the stiff war reparations and other harsh terms imposed on Germany by the treaty would lead to the financial collapse of the country, which in turn would have serious economic and political repercussions on Europe and the world.

By the fall of 1918, it was apparent to the leaders of Germany that defeat was inevitable in World War I. After four years of terrible attrition, Germany no longer had the men or resources to resist the Allies, who had been given a tremendous boost by the infusion of American manpower and supplies. In order to avert an Allied invasion of Germany, the German government contacted U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in October 1918 and asked him to arrange a general armistice. Earlier that year, Wilson had proclaimed his 𠇏ourteen Points,” which proposed terms for a “just and stable peace” between Germany and its enemies. The Germans asked that the armistice be established along these terms, and the Allies more or less complied, assuring Germany of a fair and unselfish final peace treaty. On November 11, 1918, the armistice was signed and went into effect, and fighting in World War I came to an end.

In January 1919, John Maynard Keynes traveled to the Paris Peace Conference as the chief representative of the British Treasury. The brilliant 35-year-old economist had previously won acclaim for his work with the Indian currency and his management of British finances during the war. In Paris, he sat on an economic council and advised British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, but the important peacemaking decisions were out of his hands, and President Wilson, Prime Minister Lloyd George, and French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau wielded the real authority. Germany had no role in the negotiations deciding its fate, and lesser Allied powers had little responsibility in the drafting of the final treaty.

It soon became apparent that the treaty would bear only a faint resemblance to the Fourteen Points that had been proposed by Wilson and embraced by the Germans. Wilson, a great idealist, had few negotiating skills, and he soon buckled under the pressure of Clemenceau, who hoped to punish Germany as severely as it had punished France in the Treaty of Frankfurt that ended the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. Lloyd George took the middle ground between the two men, but he backed the French plan to force Germany to pay reparations for damages inflicted on Allied civilians and their property. Since the treaty officially held Germany responsible for the outbreak of World War I (in reality it was only partially responsible), the Allies would not have to pay reparations for damages they inflicted on German civilians.

The treaty that began to emerge was a thinly veiled Carthaginian Peace, an agreement that accomplished Clemenceau’s hope to crush France’s old rival. According to its terms, Germany was to relinquish 10 percent of its territory. It was to be disarmed, and its overseas empire taken over by the Allies. Most detrimental to Germany’s immediate future, however, was the confiscation of its foreign financial holdings and its merchant carrier fleet. The German economy, already devastated by the war, was thus further crippled, and the stiff war reparations demanded ensured that it would not soon return to its feet. A final reparations figure was not agreed upon in the treaty, but estimates placed the amount in excess of $30 billion, far beyond Germany’s capacity to pay. Germany would be subject to invasion if it fell behind on payments.

Keynes, horrified by the terms of the emerging treaty, presented a plan to the Allied leaders in which the German government be given a substantial loan, thus allowing it to buy food and materials while beginning reparations payments immediately. Lloyd George approved the “Keynes Plan,” but President Wilson turned it down because he feared it would not receive congressional approval. In a private letter to a friend, Keynes called the idealistic American president “the greatest fraud on earth.” On June 5, 1919, Keynes wrote a note to Lloyd George informing the prime minister that he was resigning his post in protest of the impending �vastation of Europe.”

The Germans initially refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, and it took an ultimatum from the Allies to bring the German delegation to Paris on June 28. It was five years to the day since the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which began the chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. Clemenceau chose the location for the signing of the treaty: the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles Palace, site of the signing of the Treaty of Frankfurt that ended the Franco-Prussian War. At the ceremony, General Jan Christiaan Smuts, soon to be president of South Africa, was the only Allied leader to protest formally the Treaty of Versailles, saying it would do grave injury to the industrial revival of Europe.

At Smuts’ urging, Keynes began work on The Economic Consequences of the Peace. It was published in December 1919 and was widely read. In the book, Keynes made a grim prophecy that would have particular relevance to the next generation of Europeans: “If we aim at the impoverishment of Central Europe, vengeance, I dare say, will not limp. Nothing can then delay for very long the forces of Reaction and the despairing convulsions of Revolution, before which the horrors of the later German war will fade into nothing, and which will destroy, whoever is victor, the civilisation and the progress of our generation.”

Germany soon fell hopelessly behind in its reparations payments, and in 1923 France and Belgium occupied the industrial Ruhr region as a means of forcing payment. In protest, workers and employers closed down the factories in the region. Catastrophic inflation ensued, and Germany’s fragile economy began quickly to collapse. By the time the crash came in November 1923, a lifetime of savings could not buy a loaf of bread. That month, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler launched an abortive coup against Germany’s government. The Nazis were crushed and Hitler was imprisoned, but many resentful Germans sympathized with the Nazis and their hatred of the Treaty of Versailles.

A decade later, Hitler would exploit this continuing bitterness among Germans to seize control of the German state. In the 1930s, the Treaty of Versailles was significantly revised and altered in Germany’s favor, but this belated amendment could not stop the rise of German militarism and the subsequent outbreak of World War II.

In the late 1930s, John Maynard Keynes gained a reputation as the world’s foremost economist by advocating large-scale government economic planning to keep unemployment low and markets healthy. Today, all major capitalist nations adhere to the key principles of Keynesian economics. He died in 1946.


Proclamation of the German Empire, 1871 18 January 1871

At the end of the War of 1870, France lay defeated and invaded by its enemies. Chancellor Bismarck proclaimed the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors. Following the humiliations meted out by Louis XIV and Napoleon I, Germany finally had its revenge.

France declared war against Prussia on 19 July 1870. On 2 September the French forces in Sedan surrendered, and Prussia invaded France. On 19 September the siege of Paris began, and the first troops arrived at Versailles. On 5 October Wilhelm I and Bismarck entered the city and prepared the proclamation of the German Empire in the Palace.

After its campaigns against Austria and Denmark in the mid-1860s Prussia had increased its territory and grown stronger, and it now stretched from the Rhine to Russia. Chancellor Bismarck intended to federate the other German states around Prussia to build an empire at the expense of its rival, the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bismarck's aim was to become the new major power in the centre of Europe, between France and Russia. He constituted the North German Confederation, which united all the states except those in the south, and which was joined in 1870 by Hesse, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg. King Louis II of Bavaria refused to join the other German princes at Versailles, perhaps out of respect for the location and the legacy of Louis XIV. Whatever the reason, his brother Othon negotiated in his place. The proclamation of German unity had begun.

On 16 December 1870 a delegation from the parliament of North Germany arrived at Versailles to beg the Prussian king to accept the title of Emperor of Germany. The Confederation was dissolved on the 20th, and the proclamation of the Empire was set to be delivered on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors. An altar was installed in the centre for a religious ceremony, and a platform was built near the War Room, opposite to where Louis XIV’s throne had once stood. Six hundred officers and all the German princes were present, except for Louis II. After the Te Deum the proclamation was read out by Bismarck, dressed in a cuirassier uniform. At the end the Grand Duke of Bade cried: “Long live His Majesty Emperor Wilhelm!”

Anecdote

Following the surrender by the French army in Sedan, which marked the fall of the Second Empire, the Germans arrived in Versailles and occupied the town. The King of Prussia took up residence in the Prefecture. The Palace was closed to the public, and the Hall of Mirrors was turned into a military hospital.

Shouts of “Hurrah!” rang through the hall. The chancellor had achieved his dream, beneath the paintings by Le Brun extolling the victories of Louis XIV over the Rhine, and had got his revenge for the Battle of Jena in 1806. The Germans then made way for the deputies of defeated France.


Two fighting fronts, 3 armed services and the fourth arm of defence

Since 1934, British rearmament had been predicated on long-term deterrence rather than imminent conflict, based on the Treasury doctrine that economic stability was the fourth arm of defence. By February 1939 this had changed: Hitler’s aggression, the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis, Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War and the uncertainties of American and Russian policies meant that ‘military strategy was determining economic policy rather than the other way round’.[vi] All 3 armed services were competing for resources and equipment, scrambling to match (exaggerated) estimates of German military might.

The one thing the Chiefs of Staff agreed was that Britain would struggle to fight on more than one front at once. But Chamberlain’s attempts to secure the Mediterranean foundered on Mussolini’s ambitions, and British interests in the Far East were threatened by Japanese plans for a Pan-Asian ‘new order’, while the USA urged support for the beleaguered Chinese nationalists in the bitter Sino-Japanese conflict.

The military challenges were diverse and demanding. 20,000 British troops were pinned down in peacekeeping operations in Palestine, while Chamberlain’s resolution, however, was confirmed by domestic, as well as international considerations.


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Archaeology At Uxbenka Belize Points To Ancient Maya Wealth Disparity

Archaeology digs of numerous houses excavated at two sites in southern Belize is providing insight into gaping wealth inequality in ancient Maya cities – a disparity that researchers believe was closely linked to despotic leadership. Archaeologists on Wednesday said they studied remains of 180 homes in the medium-sized city of Uxbenká and 93 homes in [&hellip]

Belize Population By District And Sex

Here are the statistics of Belize’s population broken down by district and sex calculated as at 2010 courtesy of the Statistical Institute of Belize. From left to right the figures show Total, followed by Male and Female population totals. Population COUNTRY TOTAL Update: 420,000 – Citation 14 June 2021 Dr. Natalia Largaespada Beer, Maternal & [&hellip]

Iris Salguero Is Miss Belize Universe 2021

The new Miss Universe Belize 2020 – 2021 is 24 year old Iris Salguero from San Pedro. The announcement was made at a Miss Belize Universe Press Conference Reveal held today at the Best Western Hotel in Belize city. Iris Salguero grew up in San Pedro Ambergris Caye in Belize. As one of twelve siblings, [&hellip]

The Perils Of Living In Paradise

Belize is oft described as a tropical paradise. First inhabited by the Mayas. And then invaded by European settlers and pirates, the idyllic Caribbean destination in Central America attracts immigrants and expats looking for adventure, sunny clime and opportunity. Add to the mix the rich and famous and it can be a potent brew. Such [&hellip]

Expat Heroic Stand Against Marauding Sea Pirates

Austrian national and Placencia resort owner Christian Gigi Gusenbauer fought off sea pirates on his island home Friday 19 February. It happened at about 6:45 pm when Christian was alone on his Private Haven island located in the Lark Caye Range. That’s when he saw three to four dark-skinned men wearing hoodies approaching his house. [&hellip]


Watch the video: Ο κατώτατος μισθός σε χώρες της Ευρώπης


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