New England Restraining Act [March 30, 1775] - History

New England Restraining Act [March 30, 1775] - History


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An act to restrain the trade and commerce of the provinces of Massachusetts's Bay and New Hampshire, and colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island, and Providence Plantation, in North America, to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British islands in the West Indies; and to prohibit such provinces and colonies from carrying on .any fishery on the banks of Newfoundland, or other places therein mentioned, under certain conditions and limitations.

[The section begins with a statement of the purport of certain of the acts of trade, and continues:] and whereas, during the continuance of the combinations and disorders, which at this time prevail within the' provinces of Massachusetts's Bay and New Hampshire, and the colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island, to the obstruction of the commerce of these kingdoms, and other his Majesty's dominions, and in breach and violation of the laws of this realm, it is highly unfit that the inhabitants of the said provinces and colonies should enjoy the same privileges of trade, and the same benefits and advantages to which his Majesty's faithful and obedient subjects are entitled; be it therefore enacted .... That from and after . [July I, I775,] . and during the continuance of this act, no goods, wares, or merchandises, which are particularly enumerated in, and by the said act made in the twelfth year of king Charles the Second, or any other act, being the growth, product, or manufacture of the provinces of Massachusetts's Bay, or New Hampshire, or colonies of Connecticut, Rhode Island, or Providence Plantation, in North America, or any or either of them, are to be brought to some other British colony, or to Great Britain; or any such enumerated goods, wares. or merchandise, which shall at any time or times have been imported or brought into the said provinces or colonies, or any or either of them, shall be shipped, carried, conveyed, or transported, from any of the said provinces or colonies respectively, to any land, island, territory, dominion, port, or place whatsoever, other than to Great Britain, or some of the British islands in the West Indies, to be laid on shore there; and that no other goods, wares, or merchandises whatsoever, of the growth, product, or manufacture of the provinces or colonies herein-before mentioned, or which shall at any time or times have been imported or brought into the same, shall, from and after the said first day of July, and during the continuance of this act, be shipped, carried, conveyed, or transported, from any of the said provinces or colonies respectively. to any other land, island, territory, dominion, port, or place whatsoever, except to the kingdoms of Great Britain or Ireland, or to some of the British islands in the West Indies, to be laid on shore there; any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

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IV. And it is hereby further enacted . ., That from and after . [September I, 1775] . and during the continuance of this act, no sort of wines, salt, or any goods or commodities whatsoever, (except horses, victual, and linen cloth, the produce and manufacture of Ireland, imported directly from thence), shall be imported into any of the said colonies or provinces hereinbefore respectively mentioned, upon any pretense whatsoever, unless such goods shall be bona fide and without fraud laden and shipped in Great Britain, and carried directly from thence, upon forfeiture thereof, and of the ship or vessel on board which such goods shall be laden . .

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VI. [Goods from the British West Indies may continue to be imported. ]

VII. ., That if any ship or vessel, being the property of the subjects of Great Britain, not belonging to and fitted out from Great Britain or Ireland, or the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Sark, Alderney, or Man, shall be found, after . [July 20, I775,] . carrying on any fishery, of what nature or kind soever, upon the banks of Newfoundland, the coast of Labrador, or within the river or gulf of Saint Lawrence, or upon the coast of Cape Breton, or Nova Scotia, or any other part of the coast of North America, or having on board materials for carrying on any such fishery, every such ship or vessel, with her guns, ammunition, tackle, apparel, and furniture, together with the fish, if any shall be found on board, shall be forfeited, unless the master, or other person, having the charge of such ship Or vessel, do produce to the commander of any of his Majesty's ships of war, stationed for the protection and superintendence of the British fisheries in America, a certificate, under the hand and seal of the governor or commander in chief, of any of the colonies or plantations of Quebec, Newfoundland, Saint John, Nova Scotia, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, East Florida, West Florida, Bahamas, and Bermudas, setting forth, that such ship or vessel, expressing her name, and the name of her master, and describing her built and burthen, hath fitted and cleared out, from someone of the said colonies or plantations, in order to proceed upon the said fishery, and that she actually and bona fide belongs to and is the whole and entire property of his Majesty's subjects, inhabitants of the said colony or plantation. .

[Section VIII subjects vessels engaged in the fisheries to search. Sections IX., X., and XI. provide that this act shall not extend to ships clearing from the colonies before June I, for the whale fishery only; nor to ships belonging to the island of Nantucket, cleared for the whale fishery, and having a proper certificate; nor to fishing vessels fitted out by the towns of Marshfield and Scituate. By Sec. XII., the St. Croix river is declared to be, for the purposes of this act, the boundary between Massachusetts and Nova Scotia.]
XIII. And whereas it is the intent and meaning of the fact, that the several prohibitions and restraints herein imposed upon the trade and commerce, and fisheries, of the said provinces and colonies should be discontinued and cease, so soon as the trade and commerce of his Majesty's subjects may be carried on without interruption; be it therefore enacted . ., That whenever it shall be made appear to the satisfaction of his Majesty's governor or commander in chief, and the majority of the council, in the provinces of New Hampshire and Massachusetts's Bay respectively, that peace and obedience to the laws shall be so far restored within the said provinces, or either of them, that the trade and commerce of his Majesty' subjects may be carried on without interruption within the same; and that goods, wares, and merchandise, have been freely imported into the said provinces, or either of them, from Great Britain, and exposed to sale, without any let, hindrance, or molestation, from or by reason of any unlawful combinations to prevent or obstruct the same; and that goods, wares, and merchandise, have in like manner been exported from the said provinces, or either of them respectively, to Great Britain, for and during the term of one calendar month preceding; that then, and in such case, it shall and may be lawful for the governor or commander in chief, with the advice of the council of such provinces respectively, by proclamation, under the seal of such respective province, to notify the same to the several officers of the customs, and all others; and after such proclamation, this act with respect to such province, within which such proclamation or proclamations have been issued as aforesaid, shall be discontinued and cease, (except as herein-after provided) . .

[By Sections XIV. and XV., like proclamation may be made for Connecticut and Rhode Island, on proof that lawful trade has been resumed; but proceedings upon previous seizures are not to be thereby discharged.]


The Trail

On this day, Japan establishes its own government in conquered Nanking, the former capital of Nationalist China.

In 1937, Japan drummed up a rationale for war against Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist China (claiming Chinese troops attacked Japanese troops on maneuvers in a so-called “autonomous” region of China) and invaded northeastern China, bombing Shanghai and carving out a new state, Manchukuo.

Money and supplies poured into Free China from the United States, Britain, and France, until the Burma Road, which permitted free passage of goods into China from the West, was closed after a Japanese invasion of Indochina. Making matters more difficult, Chiang was forced to fight on two fronts: one against the Japanese (with U.S. help in the person of Gen. Joseph Stillwell, Chiang’s chief of staff), and another against his ongoing political nemesis, the Chinese Communists, led by Mao Tse-tung. (Although the United States advised concentrating on the Japanese first as the pre-eminent threat, Chiang was slow to listen.)

The Japanese proceeded to prosecute a war of terror in Manchukuo. With the capture of Nanking (formerly the Nationalist Chinese capital, which was now relocated to Chungking) by the Central China Front Army in December 1937, atrocities virtually unparalleled commenced. The army, under orders of its commander, Gen. Matsui Iwane, carried out the mass execution of more than 50,000 civilians, as well as tens of thousands of rapes. Nanking and surrounding areas were burned and looted, with one-third of its buildings utterly destroyed. The “Rape of Nanking” galvanized Western animus against the Japanese.

On March 30, 1940, Nanking was declared by the Japanese to be the center of a new Chinese government, a regime controlled by Wang Ching-wei, a defector from the Nationalist cause and now a Japanese puppet.

“Japanese set up puppet regime at Nanking.” 2008. The History Channel website. 30 Mar 2008, 02:14 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=6758.

1492 – King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain.

1533 – Henry VIII divorced his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.

1814 – The allied European nations against Napoleon marched into Paris.

1867 – The U.S. purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars.

1870 – Texas was readmitted to the Union.

1905 – U.S. President Roosevelt was chosen to mediate in the Russo-Japanese peace talks.

1950 – U.S. President Truman denounced Senator Joe McCarthy as a saboteur of U.S. foreign policy.

1972 – The Eastertide Offensive began when North Vietnamese troops crossed into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) in the northern portion of South Vietnam.

1993 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Charlie Brown hit his first home run.

1998 – Rolls-Royce was purchased by BMW in a $570 million deal.

King George endorses New England Restraining Act

Hoping to keep the New England colonies dependent on the British, King George III formally endorses the New England Restraining Act on this day in 1775. The New England Restraining Act required New England colonies to trade exclusively with Great Britain as of July 1. An additional rule would come into effect on July 20, banning colonists from fishing in the North Atlantic.

“King George endorses New England Restraining Act.” 2008. The History Channel website. 30 Mar 2008, 02:15 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=326.

15th Amendment adopted

Following its ratification by the requisite three-fourths of the states, the 15th Amendment, granting African-American men the right to vote, is formally adopted into the U.S. Constitution. Passed by Congress the year before, the amendment reads, “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” One day after it was adopted, Thomas Peterson-Mundy of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, became the first African American to vote under the authority of the 15th Amendment.

President Reagan shot

On March 30, 1981, President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C., hotel by a deranged drifter named John Hinckley Jr.

The president had just finished addressing a labor meeting at the Washington Hilton Hotel and was walking with his entourage to his limousine when Hinckley, standing among a group of reporters, fired six shots at the president, hitting Reagan and three of his attendants. White House Press Secretary James Brady was shot in the head and critically wounded, Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy was shot in the side, and District of Columbia policeman Thomas Delahaney was shot in the neck. After firing the shots, Hinckley was overpowered and pinned against a wall, and President Reagan, apparently unaware that he’d been shot, was shoved into his limousine by a Secret Service agent and rushed to the hospital.


The New England Restraining Act

On March 30, 1775, the New England Restraining Act was made law with the signature of King George III. The Act restricts the New England colonies from trading with any other country besides Great Britain or her colonies and prevents colonists from entering the North Atlantic fisheries. These measures were enacted as a punishment to the colonies for their ban on trade with Britain after the institution of the Coercive Acts and other resistance to Parliament.

Colonial relations with Great Britain had been deteriorating gradually since the Stamp Act of 1765. The Tea Act of 1773 brought things to a head with a small tax placed on imported tea. Though the tax was small, the colonists were firm in their belief that Parliament did not have the right to tax them since they had no representation there. Instead, they believed the proper bodies to institute taxes on them were their own elected legislatures.

The citizens of Boston responded to the Tea Act by dumping 42 tons of imported tea into Boston Harbor in December, 1773, an act known as the Boston Tea Party. When news reached Parliament, it responded by passing the Coercive Acts, a series of acts to punish Boston which closed the harbor, shut down the Massachusetts government, moved trials of government officials out of the colony, required the housing of British troops on private property and extended the boundaries of French speaking, but British held, Quebec, which was viewed as a threat by the colonists.

Even though the Coercive Acts were focused on Massachusetts, all of the colonies saw the Acts as a precedent that could be extended to their own colonies. They responded with mass promises not to import any more British goods until the Acts were repealed. Most of the colonies began actively recruiting and training their own armies to confront Britain if the need arose. Most of the colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia to deal with the crisis as one.

Parliament's response to all this preparation was to pass the New England Retraining Act, which was signed by the King on March 30, 1775. This Act forbade Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut from trading with any other countries but Great Britain or her colonies. The idea was to strangle the colonists into a position of desperation so they would drop their opposition and consent to Parliament's demands. The Acts also forbade them from using the North Atlantic fisheries off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, a heavy blow to the colonists, who were dependent on the food and income from the fisheries.

The New England Restraining Act focused on the New England colonies because the rebellion was centered there. In April, however, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina were added to the Act when it was learned that they were also participating in the boycotts and raising armies. The Act, tough as it was, was never really enforced and never amounted to much because the war broke out in Lexington on April 19th, causing Britain to escalate to the point of making war on her own people.


Contents

The province of Massachusetts Bay was in a state of crisis following the passage of the Coercive Acts in 1774. When colonists formed the extra-legal Massachusetts Provincial Congress and began organizing militia units independent of British control, Parliament responded on February 9, 1775, by declaring that Massachusetts was in a state of rebellion. [3]

The joint resolution of Parliament read, in part:

[W]e find, that a part of your Majesty's subjects in the province of the Massachusetts Bay have proceeded so far to resist the authority of the supreme legislature, that a rebellion at this time actually exists within the said province and we see, with the utmost concern, that they have been countenanced and encouraged by unlawful combinations and engagements, entered into by your Majesty's subjects in several of the other colonies, to the injury and oppression of many of their innocent fellow-subjects resident within the kingdom of Great Britain, and the rest of your Majesty's dominions [4]

One of the Coercive Acts, the Boston Port Act, had cut off Boston's trade this blockade was now extended to all of Massachusetts. [5]

The North ministry next turned its attention to New England generally. The New England Restraining Act (short title: New England Trade And Fisheries Act, 15 Geo. III c. 10) [6] was the ministry's response to the American colonies' decision to boycott British goods, as embodied in the Continental Association of 1774. It was given royal assent by George III on March 30, 1775. The Act provided that New England's trade be limited to Britain and the British West Indies (trade with other nations was prohibited, effective July 1, 1775). Moreover, New England ships were barred from the North Atlantic fisheries (a measure that pleased British Canadians, but threatened considerable harm to New England's economy), effective July 20, 1775.

In April 1775, after news was received in London that colonies outside of New England had joined the Continental Association, a second restraining Act was passed to include the colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina. New York, Delaware, North Carolina, and Georgia were not included because the North ministry mistakenly believed that those colonies were opposed to the colonial boycott.


The New England Restraining Act is made law

On this day in history, March 30, 1775, the New England Restraining Act is made law with the signature of King George III. The Act restricts the New England colonies from trading with any other country besides Great Britain or her colonies and prevents colonists from entering the North Atlantic fisheries. These measures were enacted as a punishment to the colonies for their ban on trade with Britain after the institution of the Coercive Acts and other resistance to Parliament.

Colonial relations with Great Britain had been deteriorating gradually since the Stamp Act of 1765. The Tea Act of 1773 brought things to a head with a small tax placed on imported tea. Though the tax was small, the colonists were firm in their belief that Parliament did not have the right to tax them since they had no representation there. Instead, they believed the proper bodies to institute taxes on them were their own elected legislatures.

The citizens of Boston responded to the Tea Act by dumping 42 tons of imported tea into Boston Harbor in December, 1773, an act known as the Boston Tea Party. When news reached Parliament, it responded by passing the Coercive Acts, a series of acts to punish Boston which closed the harbor, shut down the Massachusetts government, moved trials of government officials out of the colony, required the housing of British troops on private property and extended the boundaries of French speaking, but British held, Quebec, which was viewed as a threat by the colonists.

Even though the Coercive Acts were focused on Massachusetts, all of the colonies saw the Acts as a precedent that could be extended to their own colonies. They responded with mass promises not to import any more British goods until the Acts were repealed. Most of the colonies began actively recruiting and training their own armies to confront Britain if the need arose. Most of the colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia to deal with the crisis as one.

Parliament’s response to all this preparation was to pass the New England Retraining Act, which was signed by the King on March 30, 1775. This Act forbade Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut from trading with any other countries but Great Britain or her colonies. The idea was to strangle the colonists into a position of desperation so they would drop their opposition and consent to Parliament’s demands. The Acts also forbade them from using the North Atlantic fisheries off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, a heavy blow to the colonists, who were dependent on the food and income from the fisheries.

The New England Restraining Act focused on the New England colonies because the rebellion was centered there. In April, however, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina were added to the Act when it was learned that they were also participating in the boycotts and raising armies. The Act, tough as it was, was never really enforced and never amounted to much because the war broke out in Lexington on April 19th, causing Britain to escalate to the point of making war on her own people.

National Society Sons of the American Revolution

"Ambition, avarice, personal animosity, party opposition, and many other motives, not more laudable than these, are apt to operate as well upon those who support as upon those who oppose the right side of a question. Were there not even these inducements to moderation, nothing could be more ill-judged than that intolerant spirit, which has, at all times, characterized political parties." —Alexander Hamilton (1787)

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New England Restraining Act

The North ministry next turned its attention to New England in general. The New England Restraining Act (short title: New England Trade And Fisheries Act, 15 Geo. III c. 31) was the ministry's response to the American colonies' decision to boycott British goods, as embodied in the Continental Association of 1774. It was given royal assent by George III on March 30, 1775. The Act provided that New England's trade be limited to Britain and the British West Indies (trade with other nations was prohibited, effective July 1, 1775). Moreover, New England ships were barred from the North Atlantic fisheries (a measure that pleased British Canadians, but threatened considerable harm to New England's economy), effective July 20, 1775.


What was the colonists reaction to the New England Restraining Act?

The New England Restraining Act required New England colonies to trade exclusively with Great Britain as of July 1. An additional rule would come into effect on July 20, banning colonists from fishing in the North Atlantic.

Likewise, what did the colonists do about the Townshend Act? The Townshend Acts were a series of laws passed by the British government on the American colonies in 1767. They placed new taxes and took away some freedoms from the colonists including the following: New taxes on imports of paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea.

Also to know, what was the colonists reaction to the intolerable acts?

Intolerable Acts. The Intolerable Acts were punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party. The laws were meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance in the Tea Party protest in reaction to changes in taxation by the British to the detriment of colonial goods.

What was the restraining Act of 1767?

New York Restraining Act. The New York Restraining Act was one of the five Townshend Acts passed by Parliament in 1767 and 1768 to lay more taxes with strict enforcement upon Britain's American colonies. The New York Restraining Act was the first of the five Acts and was passed on June 15, 1767.


Contents

The province of Massachusetts Bay was in a state of crisis following the passage of the Coercive Acts in 1774. When colonists formed the extra-legal Massachusetts Provincial Congress and began organizing militia units independent of British control, Parliament responded on February 9, 1775, by declaring that Massachusetts was in a state of rebellion. Α]

The joint resolution of Parliament read, in part:

[W]e find, that a part of your Majesty's subjects in the province of the Massachusetts Bay have proceeded so far to resist the authority of the supreme legislature, that a rebellion at this time actually exists within the said province and we see, with the utmost concern, that they have been countenanced and encouraged by unlawful combinations and engagements, entered into by your Majesty's subjects in several of the other colonies, to the injury and oppression of many of their innocent fellow-subjects resident within the kingdom of Great Britain, and the rest of your Majesty's dominions Β]

One of the Coercive Acts, the Boston Port Act, had cut off Boston's trade this blockade was now extended to all of Massachusetts. Γ]


The New England Restraining Act---extended.

Taking nearly one-third of the front page and most of page 2 is the extension of the very historic New England Restraining Act by Parliament. This was the King's response to the American colonies' decision to boycott British goods. The Act provided that New England's trade be limited to Britain and the British West Indies, trade with other nations prohibited effective July 1, 1775. In April 1775, after news was received in London that colonies outside of New England had joined the Continental Association, a second restraining Act was passed to include the colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina. New York, Delaware, North Carolina, and Georgia were not included because the North ministry mistakenly believed that those colonies were opposed to the colonial boycott.
The very lengthy document in this newspaper was the revised "Extended" document to include colonies outside of New England (see list of colonies in photos).
There is other war-related content in this issue as well in addition to a report of the marriage of John Hancock: "Last evening was married. The Honorable JOHN HANCOCK, Esq. President of the Continental Congress to Miss DOROTHY QUINCY, Daughter of EDMUND QUINCY, Esq. of Boston." Another report notes: ". The above Indians came hither to offer their service in the cause of American Liberty, have been kindly received & are now enter'd the service. ". Much more concerning Indians involved in the Revolutionary War (see for portions).
There is also a great document from the: "Association of the Freemen of Maryland" which notes in part: "The long, premeditated, and now, avowed design of the British government to raise a revenue from the property of the colonists without their consent. We therefore, inhabitants of the province of Maryland, firmly persuaded that it is necessary & justifiable to repel force by force, do approve of the opposition by arms to the British troops. " with much more. Yet another report from Charleston begins: "Every thing here is suspended but warlike preparations. It is said that there are scarce 200 men in town not enrolled. The country is unanimous--our 2 regiments of foot are every day training. " with more on preparations for war. More good content on the back page as well.
Four pages, light water staining to the bottom portions, some numeric notations in margins next to ads (this was the editor's copy), very nice condition.


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