Mobile II - History

Mobile II - History

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Mobile II
(ScStr: dp. 27,000; 1. 608'; b. 65'3"; cpl. 673; trp. 4,620)

The second Mobile, a passenger liner built as Cleveland in 1908 by Blohm and Voss, Hamburg, Germany, was operated by Hamburg-Amerika Lines between Germany and the United States until the outbreak of World War I; held at the Isle of Wright throughout the war, taken over by the Allied Maritime Council and assigned to the United States after the Armistice, 11 November 1918; and commissioned 26 March 1919, Comdr. F. Rorschbach in command.

Operated by the Cruiser-Transport Force, Cleveland departed Cowes Roads, Isle of Wight, 27 March 1919 and sailed to Liverpool where her name was changed to Mobile 29 March, and she was fitted out as a troop transport. On 6 April she sailed for Brest, France, to embark her first contingent of troops bound for Hoboken, N.J. In nine transatlantic crossings, ending 3 September at Hoboken, she carried 21,073 men from, and 22 passengers to, Europe.

She decommissioned 25 November 1919 and was turned over to the U.S. Shipping Board. Transferred to the United Kingdom in 1322, and was sold to Byron S. S. Co., Ltd., for service under British registry as King

Military History

Want to witness a reenactment? Check out Forts Morgan or Gaines, where costumed guides depict scenes of daily life and historic battles. While you're at Fort Gaines, you can't miss the cannon firing demonstrations and the giant anchor from the USS Hartford, Admiral David G.

Farragut's famous vessel. If you're more of a night owl, Fort Morgan offers candlelight tours on Tuesdays. For those more nature-inclined, Blakeley State Park is not only the site of a Civil War memorial, but it also boasts fantastic nature trails and campgrounds.


BUILT: 1723 (although the structure
that now stands is an 80-percent
scale replica)
CONTROLLED BY: French, British, Spanish and
American forces
NAMED FOR: France's Prince of Condé
COMBAT: Battle of Fort Charlotte,
American Revolution
INTERESTING FACT: Under restoraction and reactivation, will reopen under new management and programming in 2017.


BUILT: Begun in 1819, completed in 1862 by
Confederate forces
NAMED FOR: War of 1812 hero General
Edmund P. Gaines
CONTROLLED BY: United States, Confederacy
COMBAT: Battle of Mobile Bay, Civil War
INTERESTING FACT: August 2014 marked the 150th
anniversary of the Battle of Mobile Bay.


BUILT: 1813
NAMED FOR: Early Baldwin County settler
Samuel Mims
CONTROLLED BY: White Alabama settlers
COMBAT: Battle of Fort Mims, Creek War
INTERESTING FACT: Major Daniel Beasley, the
commander of the fort, was killed as he
tried to close the gate against the hostile Red
Stick warriors. More than 250 men, women
and children were slaughtered, and the attack
became known as the Fort Mims Massacre.


BUILT: 1819 - 1833 (The former Fort Bowyer
was built on the same site in 1813, and it
served as the scene for two important
battles in the War of 1812.)
NAMED FOR: American Revolution hero
General Daniel Morgan
CONTROLLED BY: United States, Confederacy
COMBAT: Battle of Mobile Bay, Civil War
INTERESTING FACT: It was also a stop on the Trail
of Tears as the Native American tribe of
Creek Indians of Alabama camped here
briefly as they were forced to move.


Monroe Park

In the 1890s, Raphael Semmes Jr., son of the celebrated Confederate Naval Admiral Raphael Semmes of Mobile, moved from Memphis to Mobile to manage a new railway and streetcar system. One streetcar line ended near what was to become Monroe Park, a place for Mobilians to gather, relax, and enjoy their free time. Some wanted to name the park in honor of President James Monroe. Instead, it was named after Captain Monroe, a retired sea captain, who had built a house on the bay front before the park was formed. His house later became park's first pavilion and theater building.

The park offered recreational activities for all ages. Children observed peacocks, monkeys, and deer in the park's zoo. They rode carousels and roller coasters, ate popcorn and ice cream bought at nearby stands. Adults enjoyed international musicians and actors performing in the theatre, which later became a dance hall. The south side of the park was a popular place for family picnics and veteran's reunions where visitors could see the latest motion pictures. A baseball stadium drew thousands of fans to watch the games where the baseball greats of the day, including Babe Ruth, played. Children played and built sand castles while adults fished and gathered sought-after soft-shell crabs in Mobile Bay.

As the years went by, the face of the Monroe Park changed. The park held conventions, power boat races, and balloon ascensions. The park suffered significant damage from a series of hurricanes in the late 1920s and its recreational activities gradually faded away.

When the United States entered World War II after the 1941 attacks on Pearl Harbor, men shipped overseas by the millions to serve in the war. This left many of the civilian and military jobs on the home front unfilled—and that's when women stepped in. Before the war, some women . read more

In February of 1942, just 10 weeks after the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government issued Executive Order 9066, calling for the internment of Japanese-Americans. Intended initially to prevent Japanese spies from receiving intel, this order authorized their removal from . read more

Mobiles before Calder – Who Invented Mobiles – A History of Mobiles (Part 1)

As someone who makes mobiles professionally and has spent quite a lot of time studying mobiles, I get asked once in while, where did mobiles originate from? Who made the first mobile? Or, who invented mobiles? The short answer is that Alexander Calder is the originator of mobiles, which is mostly correct, but Calder wasn’t the first one nor the only one to experiment with the art form. The problem with providing a definite answer to the question of who made the first mobile starts with the definition of what a mobile is and what is simply just a hanging kinetic sculpture. You can read my definition of what a mobile is on my main page, but there isn’t really a set of rules that one can apply to clearly tell one from the other. However, following are the hanging kinetic sculptures that I’m aware of that were made before Calder started to make mobiles. Some of them clearly qualify as mobiles in my opinion, others are up for debate.

In chronological order:

I’ve heard of a Greek architect who built a floating statue in the 2nd century B.C. for the wife of Egyptian King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (B.C.284-246). The suspended sculpture was dependent on the overall setting of magnetic forces on the roof and the walls. I’ve been trying to find out more about this but without success.

Wind chimes have probably been around since prehistoric times. The first evidence of them, found at archeological sites in South East Asia, dates them to about 3000 B.C.. The oldest one I have been able to find an image of is from ancient Rome where people made them out of bronze. They called them Tintinnabulum and hung them outdoors so the wind would make the bells ring. They were also believed to ward off evil spirits.

Himmelis are traditional sculptures that originated in Finland, although the root of the name is Germanic. They are a decorative objects, usually made of straw, that hang from the ceiling. A Himmeli (meaning “sky” or “heaven”) is usually symmetrical and pyramid-shaped and rotates slightly with the air flow. Traditionally, they were made in the fall and were placed above the dining table until summer to ensure a good crop for the coming year. I haven’t been able to find out how far back in history the tradition goes, but they have definitely been around long before 1930 when Calder started to make mobiles.

If you’d like to make a Himmeli yourself, the Guardian has a How To Make A Himmeli Sculpture.

The Museum Van Het Nederlandse Uurwerk in Zaandam, Netherlands has a mobile dated to 1751 made of four small whale hunter boats circling a whale:

Calder was also interested in 18th century toys that demonstrate the planetary system.

The Russian artist Aleksandr Rodchenko made one of the first suspended kinetic sculptures in the 20th-century in 1919 (or 1920 depending on source) with his Oval Hanging Construction No.12:

The Russian sculptor Naum Gabo began to experiment with kinetic sculptures in 1917, which makes him a pionner in the art form. He was interested in making sculptures that continually change their appearance, but are constant in what they represent (much like mobiles). The majority of his work was lost or destroyed, but here is a 1918 drawing that he titled Sketch for a Mobile Construction:

I’ve heard of a suspended sculpture by the Russian painter and architect Vladimir Tatlin called Contre-Reliefs Liberes Dans L’espace which he supposedly made in 1915. Constructed of mathematically interlocking planes, it apparently looked very much like a mobile. However, I’ve been unable to find neither an image nor any further information about it. The details surrounding Tatlin’s life and work are relatively obscure to begin with. But here is his Letatlin (1930):

By the way, Aleksandr Rodchenko, Naum Gabo and Vladimir Tatlin all knew each other and were pioneers of constructivism (in fact, named to describe Rodchenko’s work), which had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements.

Now this next one is very important for the history of mobiles. It’s Man Ray‘s Obstruction that he made in 1920. It employs the whippletree mechanism as a balance structure in the same way that Calder started to use it in some of his mobiles a decade later. The whippletree mechanism probably dates back to between 190 to 209 AD, and has been used to distribute force evenly through linkages when horses or mules pull a plow or a wagon:

Man Ray’s Obstruction is the first of this type of hanging kinetic sculpture that I’m aware of that makes use of this mechanism. Even with it’s rudimentary coat hanger design, it can definitely be classified as a mobile:

And just because it’s so important to the evolution of mobiles, here’s another photo of it (63 wooden hangers, recreated in 1961):

Man Ray’s instructions on how to assemble his mobile:

Man Ray also experimented with hanging abstract pieces of sheet metal, here with his Lampshade in 1920:

Bruno Munari, one of the first kinetic sculptors, started to follow the Futurist movement in 1927. He made what he called “Useless Machines” (macchine inutili) and was interested in creating pieces of art that could interact with their environment (much like mobiles).

Bruno Munari’s Macchina Aer0ea ( aerial machine), 1930:

Bruno Munari continued to make very beautiful and original mobiles throughout the 1930s and 1940s (same time as Calder was exploring the art form):

Bruno Munari once said (from the book Bruno Munari: Air Made Visible): “What difference was there between my useless machines and Calder’s mobiles? I think I should clear up this matter: apart from the fact that the material construction was different, the means of constructing the objects was also different. The only thing they have in common is that they are suspended objects that move. But there are many suspended objects and there always have been, apart from the fact that even my friend Calder had a precursor in Man Ray, who in 1920 constructed an object on the same principle.”

See more of Bruno Munari’s work if you’re interested, it’s quite amazing.

According to the Museum of Modern Art, one of Alberto Giacometti‘s achievements was to enlarge the mobile concept decisively, so that formal innovation could be reconciled with the Surrealist interest in subconscious associations. Here is his kinetic sculpture, Suspended Ball, 1930:

And now here comes Alexander Calder in 1931 experimenting with abstract motorized constructions like Mobile (Motorized Mobile):

Calder visited the painter Piet Mondrian in October 1930 and later said: “When I looked at his paintings, I felt the urge to make living paintings, shapes in motion.” Influenced by the abstract work of Mondrian, Joan Miró and Sophie Taeuber-Arp, he’s approaching the idea of kinetic sculptures like an alchemist with pieces like Object with Red Discs (also known as Calderberry Bush even though Calder claimed he never assigned that title to it), made in 1932 and regarded as his first standing mobile:

And considered by some to be his first hanging mobile (and also one of his rarer sound / “noise” mobiles), Small Sphere and Heavy Sphere (1932/33):

And in 1933, Cône d’ébène, one of his first hanging mobiles where all the elements are suspended:

Calder made a simple yet very important advance in how the balance structure is applied to a hanging kinetic sculpture. He went from the straightforward whippletree structure, like the one in Man Ray’s Obstruction mobile that we looked at above, to this (Alexander Calder, Untitled, 1932):

Instead of attaching lower elements to both ends of the wires, he replaces one on each arm with an abstract shape. It’s a new way to apply the whippletree structure to a hanging kinetic sculpture, which allowed him to turn the whole idea into a new art form, a complete new magical universe with mobiles like Vertical Foliage (1941):

The term “mobile”, a French pun meaning both “mobile” and “motive”, was coined by Marcel Duchamp while visiting Calder’s studio in 1931, although he apparently already used the term in 1913 for his readymade Bicycle Wheel, which some consider to be the first kinetic sculpture.

If you know about any other early mobiles, standing or hanging, or suspended kinetic sculptures that were made before the early 1930s, please let me know, I’d love to hear from you.

Versions of this article also appear on Houzz and Saatchi Art (via Artsy on FB and Twitter and via Saatchi Art on FB and Twitter).

Next: Mobile Sculpture Artists – A History of Mobiles (Part 2) – a list of sculptors and specifically mobile artists (besides Calder) who have made important contributions to the art form since the early 1930s.

Pierce Arrow’s Touring Landau

The Smithsonian awards the honor of being the nation’s first recreational vehicle to the Pierce Arrow’s Touring Landau in 1910. The Touring Landau used a patented fifth wheel trailer hitch mechanism that permanently attached to the automobile. The model was shown at Madison Square Garden and offered to the public for $8,250. It lists a phone line to connect the trailer to the driver and had a chamber pot.

The images below are thought to be the two first mobile homes in America.

Left Image is on display at the RV and Mobile Home Hall of Fame and is believed to be the oldest American travel trailer in existence but not the first. It was built in 1913 for a professor in California. (Courtesy of Wade Thompson, Thor Industries)Right Image is a 1915 Model T Roadster with a 1916 Telescope Apartment. The camper had drawers and extensions on both sides and the end. (Both Images from RV/MH Hall of Fame)

After WWI the country was experiencing a strong economy and then the automobile gave Americans freedom that hadn’t been possible before. America hasn’t been the same since.

In 1922, the New York Times predicted that 5 million out of 10 million automobiles would be used for camping.

The automobile did indeed change everything for Americans and the wide open road was calling. Small cargo trailers that housed tents and camping goods were commonly towed by ‘Touring’ model automobiles with a longer wheelbase to allow for sleeping. The tent offered privacy and shade but the cars were used as beds. From there history gets a little muddled.

The RV and fifth wheel trailers were born from those small cargo trailers and the travel trailer as we know them today follow. From 1913 to 1929, homemade and one-of-a-kind trailers (like the two above) were common. Home builders would use chassis from wrecked cars and even trailer/cargo trucks so we can’t forget about their place in the history of mobile homes. In fact, the history of the tractor trailers, or 18 wheelers, pre-dates the travel trailer. Goods and merchandise had been transported with trailers remarkably similar to the travel trailers that eventually emerged. The travel trailer and camper industry borrowed a lot of the cambered chassis designs and material ideas from the transportation/cargo trailers.

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Mobile Ed: CH102 Introducing Church History II: Reformation to Postmodernism (7 hour course)

If you’ve ever wished you knew more about the events of the Protestant Reformation and how the Reformation produced the contemporary Protestant church, CH102 is for you. This course dispels popular misconceptions of Martin Luther’s intentions, and it provides a close look at Luther’s call from God which led him out of the monastery, his teaching on sola fide, and his eventual excommunication. Dr. James teaches you how to distinguish between Luther, the Swiss Reformers (including John Calvin, the “accidental reformer”), and the so-called Radical Reformers. He also provides a helpful explanation of the Council of Trent, the formation of the Jesuits, and the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Dr. James then helps you navigate the historical and theological developments that led to Arminianism, English Puritanism, and Puritanism in New England. Learn how the spiritual decline in England led to John Wesley’s Methodism, the English Revival, and the Great Awakening in America, and get an in-depth look at Christianity in the modern era. After this course, you will be able to articulate how even through all of the twists and turns of the past 2,000 years, God is still working in the modern church.

Course Outline


Unit 1: The Beginnings of Critical Method

  • Textus Receptus and Christian Infighting
  • Exploring New Testament Manuscripts
  • Skepticism, Modern Science, and the Historical-Critical Method
  • Beginnings of Biblical Criticism
  • Challenges to Authority, Miracles, Authorship, and Prophecy
  • Neologism and Shifting Philosophies
  • Comparing “Myth” in Philo and the New Testament

Unit 2: Old Testament Criticism: Nineteenth–Twentieth Centuries

  • De Wette and the Reinterpretation of History
  • Reinventing the History and Development of the Old Testament
  • Revival of Confessionalism
  • New Liberalism
  • Identifying Sources of the Documentary Hypothesis
  • Defending Old Testament Narrative and Theology
  • History of Religions School
  • Organizing the Psalms by Genre with the Psalms Explorer
  • Beyond Literary Criticism

Unit 3: Anglo-Saxon Old Testament Scholarship Since 1800

  • Characteristics of British and American Culture and Theology
  • Tracking Major Events and Key Characters with the Timeline
  • Critical Method Makes Inroads
  • Development of Archaeology
  • Divide between Liberal and Conservative

Unit 4: Modern Old Testament Criticism

  • Do We Need the Old Testament?
  • Systematic Theology, Salvation History, and Old Testament Unity
  • Marxist Interpretation and Liberation Theology
  • Current Issues in Old Testament Interpretation
  • Exploring Themes in Apocalyptic Texts

Unit 5: New Testament Criticism: Eighteenth–Twentieth Centuries

  • Skepticism of Reimarus
  • Early Rationalism: Part 1
  • Early Rationalism: Part 2
  • Reactions to David Strauss
  • Ferdinand C. Baur and the Tübingen School
  • Bruno Bauer
  • Later “Lives of Jesus”
  • The Final Phase

Unit 6: Anglo-Saxon New Testament Scholarship Since 1800

  • New Testament Textual Studies and the Cambridge School
  • English Liberalism
  • The Impact of Archaeology
  • English Neoconservatism

Unit 7: Modern New Testament Criticism: Jesus and the Church

  • Form Criticism
  • Redaction Criticism and the New Quest for the Historical Jesus
  • Third Quest for the Historical Jesus
  • New Testament Criticism: Jesus Quests and the Church
  • Paul, Gnosticism, and Personal Redemption
  • Paul, Judaism, and the Law
  • Distinguishing Paul’s Use of “Law” with the Word Sense Tool
  • E. P. Sanders’ Interpretation of Paul and Judaism

Unit 8: Recent Trends in Interpretation

  • Inadequacies of the Historical-Critical Method
  • The New Hermeneutic
  • Making Peace with the Ancient World
  • Literary Criticism
  • Biblical Narrative: Mimesis or History?
  • Sociological Approaches
  • Examples of Sociological Biblical Interpretation
  • Sociological Interpretation to Change Society Today

Unit 9: An Evangelical Approach to Critical Issues

  • Background to Modern Evangelicalism
  • Evangelical Achievements
  • Evangelical Issues: Inspiration
  • Evangelical Issues: Infallibility and Inerrancy
  • Evangelical Issues: Evolving Attitudes toward Inerrancy
  • Evangelical Issues: Validity of Old Testament as Christian Truth
  • Evangelical Strengths and Weaknesses

Unit 10: An Evangelical Approach to Practical Application

  • Ways of Reading the Bible
  • How to Read the Bible to Preach It
  • Reading Is an Art, Preaching a Gift
  • Preaching and Application: Part 1
  • Preaching and Application: Part 2
  • Preaching and Free Interpretation
  • Preaching and the Preacher: Part 1
  • Preaching and the Preacher: Part 2


Reserves [ edit | edit source ]

The reservists of the GM police are gathered in reserve squadrons of anti-riot police (ERGM) whose denomination and organization are based on those of the regular squadrons, for example: ERGM 124/1 at Maisons-Alfort.

  • 1st digit = always "1" for the squadrons of reserve
  • 2nd digit = number of the Mobile Gendarmes group
  • 3rd digit = number of the squadron in the grouping
  • 4th figure = number of the legion of membership.

The reservists of the GM are not authorised to be deployed for riot control, but are rather employed on missions of service and order (presence at the time of large events for example), or in reinforcement of units of the departmental Gendarmerie.

In the past the fact that the reservists could not be involved in riot control limited their usage to providing support to the Gendarmerie Départementale. However in recent times the reservists have been employed under contract to complete full regular squadrons.

Although there are some female officers in the GM, the role of non-commissioned officer is still reserved for men only. In France, it is one of the few trades, along with that of submariner, still prohibited to women.

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